Written Language Instruction

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Language Arts

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Written Language Instruction

Ellis and Covert (1996) DEFENDS D Decide on your exact position. E Examine the reasons for your position.F Form a list of points that explain each reason. E Expose your position in the first sentence. N Note each reason and supporting points. D Drive home the position in the last sentence. S Search for errors and correct.

PlanningPlanning refers to the use of a deliberate and organized approach to tackling a writing task and includes a writer’s first thoughts or basic ideas about the topic.ur text here

Schumaker and Sheldon (1985)PENS P Pick a formula. E Explore words to fit the formula. N Note the words. S Subject and verb identification comes next.

Written Language Instruction

Strategies of Writing

Elements of the Writing Process

Welch, 1992PLEASE P Pick your topic and writing format L List the information and ideas to be used in writing E Evaluate the list correct A Activate the paragraph with a topic sentence S Supply a supporting sentence E End with a concluding sentence. Evaluate your writing

WritingIn the initial writing stage, students will produce a rough draft incorporating the ideas that were generated during the planning stage and subsequently arranged in the organization stage

How to approach writing assignmentsPlan your paper (Pull together your ideas and consider how you want them in your writing.)Organize your thoughts and ideasCreate an outline or graphic organizer to be sure you've included all your ideas.Make a list of key thoughts and words you will want to use in your paper.

What strategies can help?There are many ways to help a person with dysgraphia achieve success. Generally strategies fall into three categories:Accommodations: providing alternatives to written expressionModifications: changing expectations or tasks to minimize or avoid the area of weaknessRemediation: providing instruction for improving handwriting and writing skills

Ellis (1993)PASS P Preview, review, and predict A Ask and answer questions S Summarize information S Synthesize information

EditingDuring the editing stages of the writing process, students will:•Check their grammar•Check their spelling•Check their punctuation•Ask whether their ideas are clear•Ask whether their purpose has been met

What Is Dysgraphia?

RevisingAs was discussed above, it is important for students to distinguish between the editing and revising stages. Revising allows the writer to consider the content, quality, and clarity of his or her composition. to determine how the edits and comments can help to improve their papers. For example, they might:• Utilize comments and suggestions• Rearrange the order of the text• Make corrections• Expand ideas• Rewrite their papers

OrganizingpaperpencilIt is not at all unusual for students to have difficulty selecting the important information from everything they brainstormed during the planning stage

Schumaker, Nolan, and Deshler (1985)COPS C Have I Capitalized the first word and proper names? O How is the Overall appearance? Have I made any handwriting, margin, messy, or spacing errors? P Have I used Punctuation, commas, and semicolons correctly? S Do the words look as if they are Spelled right? Can I sound them out, or should I use a dictionary?

WRITER W Write on every other line. R Read the paper for meaning. I Interrogate yourself, using COPS. T Take the paper to someone to proofread. E Execute a final copy. R Reread your paper a final time.



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