Who gets an A for Vitamin C?

by kelseygolden
Last updated 5 years ago

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Who gets an A for Vitamin C?

Testing Different Orange Juices to see Which Kind has More VItamin C.

Kelsey GoldenMay 6, 2014

References

Boiling the starch and water

Who Gets an "A" for Vitamin C?

Independent Variable:The different types of orange juiceDependent Variable:The color of the starch-iodine Solution (titrator)Constants:Using the same type of container for each juice test, using the same amount of starch-iodine solution (5 mL) for each test, using the same dropper (clean), and using the same sized drops from the dropper.Control:The VItamin C from the orange juices that were tested--the various amounts of Vitamin C in each juice controlled how many drops were needed to change the color of the starch-iodine solution.

From concentrate label

Procedures:I began the experiment by preparing the tritator. This was later used to test which orange juice contained the most Vitamin C.Titrator: 1. Using a couple drops of water and 1 Tablespoon of cornstarch, I made a paste in a cooking pot and then added the 250 mL of water. This solution was brought it to a boil for 5 minutes on the stove. I let it cool a little before proceeding to the next step. 2. I used an eyedropper to add 10 drops of the boiled mixture to a measuring cup with 75 mL of water. 3. Iodine was added until the solution turned a dark blue-black color I set this aside and brought out 3 small, empty containers that labeled each type orange juice. Testing the different orange juices for Vitamin C:1. Next, I added 5 mL of the cooled solution to each container. In doing this, I made sure to clean the eyedropper before using it to avoid contaminating the solution.2. To see if the different orange juices had visible traces of Vitamin C, I added drops (again, using a clean dropper) of each orange juice into their respective containers until the mixture turned clear or colorless. As I squeezed each drop, I swirled the container to keep the contents mixed. After seeing the mixture change color, I stopped and on a piece of paper, recorded how many drops it took for each type of solution to turn clear. As I analyzed this data, I kept in mind that the more drops needed to alter the appearance indicated that the juice(s) had insignificant amounts of Vitamin C. Similarly, the juice(s) requiring less drops meant that there contained more Vitamin C. *Some steps in this procedure were taken from a science experiment found on the following website: http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/fruit-juice-vitaminc-artificial-ingredients/. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Titration

Materials and Methods

What Does This Mean? These graphs indicate that the it required less drops of the freshly-squeezed orange juice to change the color of the Iodine--or titrate solution compared to the store bought juice and juice from concentrate. The dependent variable is measured in drops or gtts. (The letters gtts is the abbreviated form of the Latin word guttae which means "drops.") This is the unit of measurement used to measure drops of liquid. This was a necessary item to place on the graph since the experiment tested how many drops of each orange juice type it took for the starch-iodine to change color. My independent variable is labeled as the different types of orange juice. This axis on the graph is not given a measurement since I did not use a specific measured amount of orange juice during each test. The graph shows that it took 73 drops (or gtts) of the juice from concentrate to change the color of the starch-iodine solution while it took 44 drops (gtts) of the store bought juice to change the color. It is clear that it took far less drops of the freshly-squeezed juice to alter the appearance of the titrator. Compared to the other two juices, it only took 8 drops (gtts) of the freshly-squeezed orange juice to change the starch-iodine solution. I elaborate on these findings in my discussion section.

Before adding orange juice drops

Hypothesis I hypothesize that the freshly-squeezed orange juice will contain more vitamin C than store bought orange juice and orange juice from concentrate. I believe it will take less drops of juice that is freshly-squeezed from the orange to change the color of the starch-iodine solution (titrator), thus concluding that it contains more Vitamin C. Since this kind of juice will not have any added ingredients, preservatives, or chemicals, then I believe it will test for more natural levels of Vitamin C. In contrast to the store bought juice and juice from conventrate that I will be testing, the freshly-squeezed juice will have some of the pulp from the actual orange. I believe the presence of the pulp will help the juice lock in some of the additional nutirents and preserve a great deal of Vitamin C from the fruit. I hypothesize that the other two juices will have some Vitamin C but will take more drops to change the color of the tritator. Although the nutrition labels indicate high levels of Vitamin C (shown below), I still believe freshly-squeezed orange juice will test for more.

Variables

From concentrate label

Adding iodine

Introduction

Research Question:Does freshly-squeezed orange juice contain more Vitamin C than store bought orange juice and orange juice from concentrate?

Materials:- 1 carton/jug of store bought orange juice (I used Florida's Natural juice).- 1 can of orange juice from frozen concentrate (prepared) (I used a Minute Maid brand). - 1 large orange- Orange juicer- 3 small containers (or test tubes with rack) - Eyedropper/pipette- Liquid measuring cup and a Tablespoon (to measure necessary ingredients)- Paper and pencil (to record data)- Iodine Indicator/titrate (materials below)- Iodine (10 drops)- Starch (1 Tablespoon)- Water (250 mL)- Pot - Stove

Adding orange juice drops

Experimental Findings With the purpose of this study to determine which orange juice type had more amounts of Vitamin C, the data on the graph above certainly shows that each type had various amounts of the vitamin. Since it took different amounts of drops of each type to change the appearance of the titrator, I could identify which type had the most and least amount of Vitamin C. Considering the information about the titration process I collected in my background research, I knew that the the starch-iodine solution would react to the presence of Vitamin C. As one of my sources essentially explains, that as the titrant "is added to the Vitamin C, the iodine is reduced to the iodide ion" ("Performing a Titration...",n.d.). The endopoint of the reaction occured when the color of the solution turned clear or colorless. The specific experiment I followed only required to stop adding orange juice drops after 10 drops. However, I decided to see how many more drops it would take for the color to change past the 10, thus indicating which sample had higher levels of Vitamin C. The results were surprising. It took 73 drops of the juice from concentrate, 44 drops of the store bought juice, and only 8 drops of the freshly-squeezed juice to change the color of the titrator. The picture above shows how each juice type changed the appearance of the starch-iodine solution. These data trends indicate that the the juice from concentrate had slightly more Vitamin C than the store bought juice. I was not surprised that the freshly-squeezed juice tested for a higher level of Vitamin C than the others. As I completed my experiment, it took quite a few drops (44) of store bought juice to change color of the titrate. This led me to believe that this kind of juice may have had a trace of Vitamin C but the presence was not immediately noticeable. I must say that I was a bit surprised by this result. Beck's (2012) explained that water and Vitamin C are taken out of store bought juices in order to safely transport them but most of it is added back in when they are ready to be sold. With this in mind, I thought it would have taken less drops of this store bought to change the color. It was really interesting to see the juice from concentrate test for lower levels of Vitamin C when it required more drops to change the color of the titrate (73). I would have thought that the can of concentrate packed in more nutrients and Vitamin C. Moreover, the label on the can indicated a higher percentage of Vitamin C (160%) versus the store bought juice (120%). Perhaps the water that I added when preparing the concentrated juice diluted some of the traces of the vitamin so this is may be something to consider. Despite what Beck (2012) says about companies that advertise 100% orange juices not having any added sugar or ingredients, I find this very hard to believe. After completing the experiment, I tasted each of the orange juices to see if there were noticeable differences in flavor. Both the store bought and concentrated juices advertised 100% fruit juice but to me, it tasted significantly different than the real, freshly-squeezed orange juice. Both were smooth and sweet tasting--making me think that sugar had to have been added. It made sense that the freshly-squeezed juice taksed thick and very bitter considering that I added no ingredients and kept the pulp in the juice.

Discussion

Beck, K. (2012 October). What’s In your juice? Retrieved from http://fruitjuiceaustralia.org/ publications/news/Media%20Release%20-%20What%20%20s%20in%20your%20Juice %20011012.pdf

Benefits of orange juice. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.med-health.net/Benefits-Of-Orange-Juice.html

Ehrlich, S.D. (2011, July 7). Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Retrieved from http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-c-ascorbic-acid

Hamilton, A. (2011). ‘Fresh’ squeezed? The truth about orange juice in boxes. Nutrition Digest, 35(4). Retrieved from http://americannutritionassociation.org/newsletter/fresh-squeezed

Hanley, B. (2014, February 12). The science behind orange juice. Retrieved from http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2014/02/12/science-behind-orange-juice/

Performing a titration. Supplemental lab handout. CHM 2260. (n.d.). Retrived from http://www2.uncp.edu/home/mcclurem/courses/chm226/handout_titration.pdf

Sofia, P.C. (n.d.). Does 100% fruit juice have more vitamin C than juice with artificial ingredients? Retrieved from http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/fruit-juice-vitaminc-artificial-ingredients/

VanCleave, J. (n.d). Determine the amount of vitamin C in various foods by using titration method. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/vitamin-content-analysis-food-titration/

Background Information

Science and Orange Juice? Orange juice: colorful, delicious, and refreshing! A lot of people like to drink orange juice but what they don’t know is that there is a science behind this great beverage. Scientists and doctors have found many benefits of drinking orange juice because it contains essential amounts of vitamins, nutrients, and antioxidants that help our bodies in many ways. One reliable source explains that moderate consumption of the juice can help reduce inflammation and even decrease the likelihood of someone developing type II diabetes. Also found in orange juice is a water-soluble plant pigment called hesperidin. Hesperidin works with small blood vessels in the body to keep blood pressure levels at normal and lower the risk of cardiovascular problems. Orange juice even contains folate, an important form of folic acid necessary for development. It is recommended that in order to prevent certain birth defects in their babies, pregnant women should drink orange juice every day. “Drinking ⅓ cup of orange juice each day provides 40 mcg of folates to expectant mothers… The ⅓ cup serving mentioned provides 10% of the recommended daily value of folates” (“Benefits of Orange…”, n.d.). One article reports that orange juice has natural sugars and vitamins called bioflavonoids and gives people numerous health benefits. Studies have shown that bioflavonoids like “Rhiofolen had insulin mimetic activity; nobiletin stimulates neural growth and is a candidate for combating memory loss; poncirin is an antioxidant, etc. In other words, citrus bioflavonoids are a hot area of research” (Hanley, 2014). There are certainly a lot of other benefits to drinking orange juice but the presence of Vitamin C is probably the most common reason people drink the juice. Researchers explain that naturally, our bodies are not able to produce Vitamin C so we must get the nutrient from our food and drinks. It is suggested that drinking two glasses of orange juice a day can increase Vitamin C levels in the body by 40-64% (“Benefits of Orange…”, n.d.). An article on the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) website written by Dr. Steven D. Ehrlich further explains how Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is healthy to drink. Ehrlich says that it its necessary for the growth and repairing of tissues in the body, keeping bones and teeth strong, and supporting the development of collagen. Vitamin C also contains antioxidants and other nutrients that can “block some of the damage caused by free radicals, substances that damage DNA. The build-up of free radicals over time may contribute to the aging process and the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis” (Ehrlich, 2011). Regularly eating foods and consuming citrus drinks like orange juice that contain Vitamin C can prevent these issues and when coupled with extreme exercising, can also help reduce the risk of catching the common cold. People who have a Vitamin C deficiency are prone to a lot of health issues like easy bruising, nosebleeds, dry skin, a decrease in ability to fight off infection, and some even develop a disease called Scurvy (Ehrlich, 2011). Based on these scientific facts, it is evident that drinking orange juice should be an important part of our daily diets. However, choosing the right kind of orange juice is probably just as important to consider. Many of the juices available in the store may advertise that they are all natural and contain no additive ingredients but this is not always true. Author Alissa Hamilton informs readers that over the years, many of these companies have successfully persuaded consumers into believing that pasteurized orange juice is healthier and fresher than concentrated orange juice. Hamilton explains that “storing full strength pasteurized orange juice is more costly and elaborate than storing the space saving concentrate from which ‘from concentrate’ is made. The technology of choice at the moment is aseptic storage, which involves stripping the juice of oxygen, a process known as ‘deaeration,’ so it doesn’t oxidize in the million gallon tanks in which it can be kept for upwards of a year” (Hamilton, 2011). Essentially, pasteurization is a common solution for companies because it strips juices of oxygen, making it safe for storage and distribution. Hamilton (2011) shares that this process also causes the juices to lose their natural flavors so the tangy flavor we taste in most store bought juices are artificial. Interestingly, some companies hire perfume manufactures like Dior and Calvin Klein to develop new flavors or flavors that taste similar to other popular orange juices. Kristen Beck, a nutritionist and health scientist mentions of that when comparing store bought orange juices and freshly-squeezed juice, the level of processing is much different. Most juices are concentrated where water and a lot Vitamin C is lost from the drink. However, she explains that when “the juice is then packaged for sale, the same amount of water and the same amount of vitamin C is added back. In 100% juice, no sugar is added or removed during the process” (Beck, 2012). She maintains that one serving of fruit juice (about 125 mL) is equivalent to one piece of fruit (about 150 mL) and says that if the label on the drink says: 100% juices, then you are getting the same nutrients you receive from real fruit. Hamilton (2011) shares that while some may come from real oranges, they are by no means fresh or all natural. Surprisingly, she reports that some of the orange juices on the market has been stored from previous seasons or shipped from other countries. Ultimately, Hamilton (2011) suggests that if you are drinking orange juice for the nutritional value, you are probably better off reaching for a real orange. By consuming real fruit, you know that there are no additives, preservatives, or chemicals and can be 100% certain that what you are eating is 100% natural. Moreover, real oranges contain all of the important nutrients we need—like fiber and Vitamin C. She ends by saying that peeling and eating a real "orange may be messy, but all things considered, so is a glass of OJ produced by any of the major labels" (Hamilton, 2011).

Results

After adding orange juice drops

Hypothesis was Correct!and Real Life Implications After completing the experiment, I can conclude that my initial hypothesis has been supported. The freshly-squeezed orange juice did in fact test for higher amounts of Vitamin C than the other juices becuase it didnt take as many drops to change the color of the titrate. I was also correct about the other juices containing traces of Vitamin C but not as much as the freshly-squeezed juice. While I suspected that the fresh orange juice would take less drops to change the solution, I was surprised that it only took 8 drops. I think this shows how strong and powerful the Vitamin C is in a real orange. I believe this experiment reveals the importance of making sure the foods and drinks you consume contain healthy ingredients. Because of this, there are various ways this study relates to things we experience in our everyday lives. My background research revealed the many different benefits of drinking orange juice. Specifically, Vitaminc C is an essential nutrient we need to keep our bones, teeth, and hair healty and prevent harmul diseases. Scientists maintain that Vitamin C is sensitive to light, air, and heat, so you'll get the most vitamin C if you eat fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked" (Ehrlich, 2011) so it makes sense that the freshly-squeezed orange juice would test for higher amounts of the vitamin. To make sure you are getting the necessary amounts of Vitamin C, among other nutrients, drinking freshly-squeezed juice is probably the best route. Or better yet, you could follow Alissa Hamilton's advice and just eat a real orange; "it’s higher in vitamin C than a glass of processed juice and the flavor is incomparable" (Hamilton, 2011). The fact that it took less drops for the freshly-squeezed juice to react with the titrant in this study shows that eating oranges are probably the healthier option.

Future Research This experiment led to some interesting results that have caused me to to think about ways to expand on my findings. Below, I have described some ways that I could extend on my findings.- Testing the orange juice for other ingredients My background research indicated that many companies pack additives and preservatives into their orange juices. I think it would be interesting to find a way to test orange juices ingredients like sugar or artificial dyes and compare which ones may be healthier. - Test other fruits and vegetables for Vitamin C. Previous research also revealed that Vitamin C can be obtainted from a variety of other fruits and vegetables. It would be interesting to see how oranges/orange juice tests for Vitamin C compared to foods/juices like lemons, tomatoes, and potatoes.Questions to research:- Are there other ways to test the presence of Vitamin C?- Is it any healthier to take Vitamin C supplements or eat/drink foods containing the vitamin?- How much Vitamin C do adults and children need each day?

Possible LimitationsBelow are some possible limitations that may have affected the results I gathered from this study. These are things that may need to be further studied, perhaps for similar experiments conducted in the future. -The temperature of the orange juices As I completed the study, each juice I used had a different temperature. The juice from concentrate was prepared and tested after just thawing out from being frozen, so the mixture was very cold. The store bought juice was refrigerated and the orangs used to make the freshly-squeezed juice was kept at room temperature. I am not sure if the temperature of these items can affect the acidity of the juice so this is something to keep in mind. - Using different brands of orange juice When purchasing the juices to use in the experiment, I was a bit overwhelmed by all of the brands and types to choose from. I chose different brands for the store bought juice (Florida's Natural) and the from concentrate juice (Minute Maid). It may have changed the outcome if I had chosen the same brand of concentrated juice and store bought juice. - Not shaking/stirring the juices well enough When first mixing up the frozen, concentrated orange juice, I made sure to stir the contents. However, after testing it for Vitamin C, I noticed some of the concentrate had settled to the bottom. Similarly, I may have not shaken up the carton of store bought juice very well before testing it. Maybe some of the Vitamin C that was in the juice may have settled, therefore not fairly used in the samples tested.

Testing Vitamin C With Titration Titration is a term used to describe a technique that combines two solutions—a known solution and an unknown solution. Many scientists use this method to test for many types of reactions. One source explains that the known solution is named the titrant while the unknown solution, or the substance with which the titrant reacts, is called the analyte. When the two are mixed together and a reaction is observed, experimenters reach the endpoint of the titration. This same source states that the purpose of this kind of observable indicator “is to provide some visual clue that the reaction is complete. Acid-base titrations typically employ an indicator that changes color with the acidity of the solution” (“Performing a Titration…”, n.d.). In this experiment, corn starch, water, and iodine are used together and used in a titration method. The source cited above states that when starch and iodine are at work to test the presence of a particular substance, the endpoint of the process is reached when the solution turns from dark, black-blue to clear or colorless. A different resource written by Janice VanCleave specifically explains that iodine reacts with Vitamin C.“When starch, vitamin C, and elemental iodine are mixed, the iodine is more attracted to the vitamin C molecules” (VanCleave, n.d.).

Purpose and Importance The purpose of this study is to determine which kind of orange juice contains a larger amount of Vitamin C. Three types of orange juices will be tested: freshly-squeezed, store bought, and juice from frozen concentrate; to test which had higher levels of the vitamin. The method of titration, a technique used to determine concentration levels of a particular substance, will be performed with all three juices. This method is often used to test other solutions so experimentors can visually see a change in reaction. In this particular case, an iodine-starch solution will be used to test for Vitamin C by adding drops of each juice to the titrator until it changes color. Vitamin C is an essential part of our daily diets and we need it for many reasons. Oranges are the first items we consider being definite sources of VItamin C. Many peoplpe get their intake of Vitamin C from oragne juice. But we want to make sure that the juice we drink actually contains essential nutirents we need. When we walk into any grocery store, we see many brands and varieties of orange juice. It is important to be cautious of what kind we drink so we are not tricked by companies to buy products that do not contain Vitamin C and do contain harmful ingredients, despite what they advertise on the label. This experiment tested different orange juices to see who truly has more Vitamin C compared to freshly-squeezed orange juice.

Store bought juicelabel


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