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by edash96
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Earth Sciences

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Hurricane: The warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward from near the surface. Because this air moves up and away from the surface, there is less air left near the surface. Another way to say the same thing is that the warm air rises, causing an area of lower air pressure below. Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area. Then that "new" air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. As the warm air continues to rise, the surrounding air swirls in to take its place. As the warmed, moist air rises and cools off, the water in the air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean's heat and water evaporating from the surface.

Rain: The water on earth goes through a cycle when it first exists as vapor in the atmosphere, then, when weather conditions are favorable, it condensates and form clouds which then in turn "break" apart in the form of rain drops. The liquid water on earth flows in rivers, forms lakes and oceans and eventually becomes either frozen in the ice of the poles or evaporates to form more clouds.

Tornado: As the mesocyclone(area of organized rotation) approaches the ground, a visible condensation funnel appears to descend from the base of the storm. As the funnel descends, the rear flank downdraft (RFD) also reaches the ground. This creates a gust front that can cause damage a good distance from the tornado. The funnel cloud becomes a tornado within minutes of the RFD reaching the ground.

Snow: Snow is formed when condensation begins and the tiny drops of condensation start to stick together. When the temperature in the higher atmosphere is cold enough the tiny drops start to freeze together and the drops begin to get heavier. When they are heavy enough they begin to fall towards the ground.

Hail: Hail is formed inside a cumulonimbus clouds. Condensation or rain drops form and freeze inside the cloud. After layers of ice continue to form, it will get to a point of being to heavy and will fall from the cloud, thus falling from the sky to the ground.

Lightning: Lightning forms from the build up of electrons or negative charges in clouds that are attracted to positive charges in other clouds or on the ground. Lightning is the discharge of energy from the cloud to the ground and back.

Thunder(thunderstorms): Thunder is really nothing more than a sonic boom. Water and dust particles in a storm smash in to each other releasing free electrons in to the atmosphere giving the storm a strong positive charge. The ground has a strong negative charge so when the difference between positive and negative reach a high enough level plasma or charged particles are released from the ground in a stream. This stream of plasma is the same stuff that makes up the sun. The plasma super heats the air which rushes out in all directions faster than she speed of sound, creating a sonic boom.

Rainbows: Rainbows are formed because of the process of bending light knows as Refraction. different colors of light bend at different angles when they refract. When light from the sun enters a droplet of rain, it refracts a tiny bit causing the colors of light to spread apart, the light then bounces, or reflects, off of the back of the droppled and refracts once again as it leave the dropplet on the same side it entered. By the time the light reaches your eyes the refraction is so noticeable that you see all the colors of sunlight spread apart - creating a Rainbow

Sleet: Sleet is formed when raindrops pass through very cold layers in the atmosphere which causes them to freeze. It can also be formed when snow passes through warmer layers and partially melts then quickly passes through another cold layer.

Sandstorm: Sandstorms usually form in dry desert areas. High winds across the sand picking up the loose, dry top layers of sand and blow it violently across the land, resulting in a cloud that can block visibility, cover roads and oases, and sometimes result in a 'sand-blasting effect' that can erode objects. Sandstorms can last for minutes, hours, or even days.



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