Water related disease outbreaks

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by gavin2015
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Earth Sciences

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Water related disease outbreaks

Common DiseasesWaterborne disease: caused by ingestion of contaminated water, most common post rain/flood disasters ex. Cholera, Hepatitis A and E, dysentaryWaterwashed disease: caused by skin/eye contact with contanimated water ex. Lepto-spirosisWater related disease: caused by insect vectors that breed in water, most common post cyclones, hurricanes, & flooding ex. malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever

Resiliancy Efforts-all risks much higher in developing countries Pre-disaster-surveillance plans for detecting epedemics -flood resistant waste-water management-awareness of common disasters and adequate preparation for displaced personsPost-disaster-quick drain clean up to prevent stagnant water-access to hand washing stations, disinfectants, insecticides & bug nets especially in shelters for displaced peoples-long term management as many diseases, like malaria, take weeks appear Most importantly: clean drinking water through filters or chlorine

References Ahern M, Kovats RS, Wilkinson P, Few R, Matthies F. 2005. Global health impacts of floods: Epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiologic Reviews 27(1):36-46.World Bank. 2004. Disease control priorities in developing countries. Oxford University Press.Brown BJ and Warning SC. 2005.The threat of communicable diseases following natural disasters: A public health response Disaster Management & Response :41.de Ville de Goyet, C., Marti RZ, Osorio C. 2006.Natural disaster mitigation and relief In: Disease control priorities in developing countries. Disease Control Priorities Project., , Jamison DT, et al, editors. 2nd ed. ed. New York; Washington, DC: Oxford University Press; World Bank. 1147 p.Hurricane Katrina Statistics Fast Facts [Internet]. New York, US: Cable News Network, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.; cAugust, 2014 [cited 2015 April 16]. Available from: http://www.cnn.com/2013/08/23/us/hurricane-katrina-statistics-fast-facts/ .Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats. Vulnerable infrastructure and waterborne disease risk. Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary. [Internet]. cited April 14, 2015]Washington, DC, United States:National Academies Press. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK28463/.Isidore KK, Aljunid S, Kamigaki T, Hammad K, Oshitani H. Preventing and controlling infectious diseases after natural disasters. United Nations University [Internet]. [revised March, 13;cited April 14, 2015]Tokyo, Japan:United Nations University. Available from http://unu.edu/publications/articles/preventing-and-controlling-infectious-diseases-after-natural-disasters.html#info.Israel D and Briones R. 2014.Impacts from and state responses to natural disasters in the philippines In: Resilience and recovery in asian disasters : Community ties, market mechanisms, and governance. Aldrich DP, editor., Oum S, et al, editors. Berlin: Springer. 282 p.

Water Related Disease Outbreaks Post Natural DisastersLily Dinkins, Alexandra Lorentz, Rachel Quindlen

Cause of Outbreaks:- flooding - lack of/ breakdown of infrastructure- crowding- increase of vectors (mosquitos for example)Made possible by water, acting as the main vector.Main diseases seen after Katrina:- gastrointestinal/diarrheal- wound infections- respiratory issues- skin infections

Case Study: Hurricane KatrinaOn August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast area as a category 3 storm, affecting Louisiana and Mississipi the most. 10,000 people sought shelter in the SuperDome of New Orleans, with 1 million people in total being displaced by the storm. New Orleans was most heavily impacted, being situated below sea level; eighty percent of the city was underwater due to failed levees.


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