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Earth Sciences

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Types of Volcanoes

Sources: -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnBggrCdkN0-http://ian.umces.edu/imagelibrary/albums/userpics/12789/normal_ian-symbol-volcano-3d-shield.png-http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/types.html-http://skywalker.cochise.edu/wellerr/students/volcano-types/project_files/image006.jpg-http://www.decadevolcano.net/photos/indonesia/semeru_40416.jpg-http://images.volcanodiscovery.com/fileadmin/photos/indonesia/kelud/kelud_1107/kelud_e33154.jpg

Shield Volcanoes are short and stout. Most are a few kilometers long but some reach over 100 kilometers. Their heights are typically about 1/20th of their widths. The lower slopes are often gentle They are formed from the extrusion of very fluid lava that spreads outward from the summit area. There are very few pyroclastic deposits in sheild volvanoes.

Cinder Cone Volcanoes are built from lava that erupts from a single vent. Eruptions are quite violent, and as the lava is blown into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders. These cinders form a cone with a bowl-shaped crater at the top. Cinder Cone volcanoes are rarely more than a thousand feet tall.

Stratovolcanoes (aka Composite volcanoes) are the tallest volcanoes. They are quite steep and are built with alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, and cinders. Some stratovolcanoes can be over 8,000 feet tall. Staratovolcanoes have a crater at the top which is where most of the lava flows from. Lava can also flow from samller vents.

Lava domes are formed by small amounts of lava that is too viscous to flow a long distance. The lava piles over itself forming a dome. Unlike other volcanoes, lava domes drow from inward expansion. As it grows its outer surface cools and hardens, then shatters.

Cindercone volcanoes and Lava domes are the most similar in size and shape (although there is still a large gap between the two). Cinder cones are formed from cinder and Lava domes are formed from lava. Lava domes expand from the inside and cinder cones expand from the outside,

Both Lava Domes and sheild volcanoes are formed from lava. Lava domes are much steeper but are often much smaller (less total mass). Lava domes grow from inward expansion while sheild volcanoes grow from added layers of lava to the outside.

Sheild volcanos are much shorter and wider than cinder cone volcanoes. Cinder cone volcanoes are formed from cinder, sheild volcanoes are formed from lava. Both volcanoes have a gentle slope, but cinder cone volcanoes are often steeper..

Stratovolcanoes are much large and steeper and more massive than lava domes. Lava domes form from inward expansion while stratovolanoes grow from the outside. Lava is involved in the growth of both volcanoes.

Stratovolanoes are much taller and steeper than sheild volcanoes but sheild volcanoes are much wider. They are both formed using alternating layers of lava.

Both Volcanoes have a crater at the top and release a large amount if cinder. Stratovolcanoes are much larger and steeper than cinder cone volcanoes.



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