[2014] Theresa Lagan: Volcanoes

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by Bekstar1000
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Earth Sciences

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[2014] Theresa Lagan: Volcanoes

What Are Volcanoes?Volcanoes are openings in the earth's crust. Magma reaches the earth's crust when tectonic plates converge and one slides beneath the other and sends heat towards the mantle causing it to melt. The pressure is released sending hot magma through the opening.

What Are The effects Of A Volcano?The effects of a volcano can be put into primary and secondary effects. Primary effects happen during the volcanic eruption and include ash and lava. Ash floats with the wind and if it is raining or there is moisture in the air the ash will turn into acid rain. Lava covers plants and cities and dries as a hard rock. Secondary effects happen after the eruption and include lahars (mudflows), avalanches and tsunami (tidal waves). The other way to put effects into categories is VEI. VEI 1 is a small volcano with mild effects and VEI 10 is a very serious volcano with extremely devastating effects. Volcanoes can also have some positive effects on the environment such as the lava making soil very fertile and lava can provide nutrients to the surrounding soil. Volcanic ash often contains minerals that are beneficial to plants, and if it is very fine ash it is able to break down quickly and get mixed into the soil.


How Can We Measure Volcanoes?There are multiple ways to measure a volcano but a few of the main ones are remote sensing, ground deformation, geophysical measurments, gas measurments, hydrolic measurments and seismicity.

How Can Volcanoes Connect People and Places? Volcanoes can connect people and places because other countries pitch in money for re-development of affected areas, food and water and shelter. Countries can also send volunteers. Prime ministers and presidents can meet to make agreements on aid and money. Factors that influence these interconnections are that other countries can benefit from helping another in need. This can improve the trade, connection and ways that the countries will help each other out.

Where Are Most Of The Worlds Volcanoes?The Earth's most volcanoes are located in the ring of fire which sits around the edge of the Pacific Ocean. The ring is dotted with 74% of all active volcanoes on Earth. The ring is not a a circular ring but more of a 40,000 km horseshoe. A string of 452 volcanoes stretch from the southern tip of South America, up along the coast of North America, across the Bering Strait, down through Japan and into New Zealand. The ring of fire is also home to hotspots, areas deep inside the Earth's mantle from which heat rises causing rock on the crust to melt and magma often pushes through the cracks in the crust to form volcanoes.

How Do Volcanoes Effect People and Places?Volcanoes can affect people and places because cities and towns and the civilisation in them can be destroyed by lava and ash. Lava sets fire to flora, fauna and much more. Volcanic ash covers everything in thick layers and is poisonous to breathe in. If acid rain is formed it can do serious damage to objects and people.


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