Vitamin D

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Vitamin D

The recommended intake of Vitamin D for adult women and men is 5 mcg (200 IU) daily. According to a study, a sample of adults aged 18-60 years old had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, with 81.6% of participants not meeting the DRI recommendation (Rodriguez, Estaire, Ruiz, & Ortega)   Vitamin D primary food sources include: • Vitamin D-fortified milk and margarine •Butter• Fish (salmon, tuna, and mackerel)• Eggs• Mushrooms• Milk products (cheese, yogurt, ice cream, breakfast cereals, and bread)




Primary Functions

Food Source

Deficiency Symptoms

• Deficiency is associated with respiratory diseases in children; material vitamin D status is related to recurrent wheeze, asthma, and allergy in the child's early life (Palermo & Holick) • In children, weak and deformed bones (can cause rickets, where the bones become soft and bend) • In adults, there is a loss of calcium in the bones and potential risk of developing osteoporosis  • Increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 1 & 2 diabetes, some cancers, and other inflammation-related disorders (multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis)

Sun Exposure

•Estimated that exposing the whole body to direct sunlight for 10-15 minutes generates about 500 mcg of vitamin D  • Vitamin D production is higher in light-skinned people than in those with dark skin  • Sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D and stimulates the production of vitamin D3 in the skin depending on age, skin pigmentation, clothing style, and sunscreen use (Lips, Schoor, & Jongh) • Sunscreen use decreases vitamin D production in the skin by 50% or more, but does not completely abolish it (Lips, Schoor, & Jongh)

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• required for absorption of calcium and phosphorous • fat-soluble vitamin • needed for bone growth, bone formation, and nerve and muscle activity • plays a key role as a hormone that combats chronic inflammation (low grade inflammation that can last weeks, months, or years) • reduces inflammation by entering cells and turning those genes that produce inflammatory substances "off", and those that reduce inflammatory substances "on"

Citations: González-Rodríguez, L. G., Estaire, P., Peñas-Ruiz, C., & Ortega, R. M. (2013). Vitamin D intake and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults. Journal Of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, 2664-72 9p. doi:10.1111/jhn.12061  Lips, P., van Schoor, N. M., & de Jongh, R. T. (2014). Diet, sun, and lifestyle as determinants of vitamin D status. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 131792-98. doi:10.1111/nyas.12443 alermo, N. E., & Holick, M. F. (2014). Vitamin D, bone health, and other health benefits in pediatric patients. Journal Of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 7(2), 179-192. doi:10.3233/PRM-140287

Madison Resnick


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