Victoria Vazquez

by APBiologyJLHS
Last updated 8 years ago


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Victoria Vazquez


Basic Information





T- cell receptors are called TCRs or T-cell Recpetors. These receptors are found on the surface of the T-cell and can recognize the antigens that enter the body.

T-cells or T Lymphocytes are white blood cells that are specifically used in the Adaptive Immune System. The Adaptive Immune System is a small portion of the Immune System that through cells and various processes helps prevent and rid the body of pathogens. T- cells specifically help the body fight diseases and harmful substances.

The ligand for T-cells are called Antigens. Antigens are foreign substances and toxins that enter the body. These antigens cause the immune system to produce antibodies. Antibodies are what help fight for our immune health and keep us healthy.

T- Cell

MechanismsCorrect: If everything works well the immune system fights and detects the antigens in the body and keeps us healthy.Faulty: The immune system starts to weaken and begins to do less to keep us safe. This leads to illness and higher chance of immune disease.

Signal Transduction Pathway1. Macrophage digests the particle and antigens are detected. 2. Helper T-cells grab the macrophage and allow the T-cell to read the antigen.3. If the antigen is read and it is indeed foreign the helper cell is activated.4. The activated helper cells produce proteins that signal the rest of the immune system to do their various jobs.5. The many types of immune system cells that help with antigen removal rush to the antigen. Together they rid the body of the antigen. Killer T-cells kill the antigen.

References:Cantrell, D. (2002, April). T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction. Retrieved from (2008, October 02). Retrieved from, A. (1987, November 04). Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the t cell erythrocyte receptor. Retrieved from

Penn State recented confirmed that gene therapy engineered to use our T-cells is now one of the best and most effective way to fight Leukemia. In more than half of the patients Leukemia disappeared completely. This is an amazing way to use our own bodies to fight off disease.



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