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by breeza2
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Vertebrates are the most advanced organisms on Earth. The things that make these animals special are their spinal cords, vertebrae, and notochords (rod of cartilage). It's about having a series of nerves along your back. If you are an vertebrate, you need to give those nerves support and protection.

Ampibians live on land and in water, start their life with gills and develop lungs.Ampibians need the water when they are babies but they develop from a tadpole (a underwater creature) into a young frog or toad etc. Amphibians also use their skin to absorb oxygen from the air.They need to keep their skin wet to breathe. Amphibians can be found in lots of different ecosystems.All Ampibians: live on land & in water; have webbed feet; breathe with lungs & gills; are cold blooded; moist; smooth skin (no hair or fur) and they lay eggs.

Reptiles are cold blooded vertebrates that lay eggs. Alligators and crocodiles are a type of reptile. Of all the reptiles on Earth, the alligators and crocodiles are the largest. They can be bigger than 6m. This group of reptiles is called Crocodilia, even though they aren't all crocodiles. Some other examples of reptiles are snakes, salamanders and lizards. All Reptiles: have scales not fur; have dry skin; have ear holes instead of ears; are cold-blooded; usually lay eggs and have 4 legs or no legs.



There are three types of Mammals - placental, marsuipal and monotrme. Most mammals are placental (give birth to live young), placental mammals are things like rodents and rats. If you are in Australia you will see a lot of marsupials, marsupials are animals that keep there babies in a pouch, like kangaroos. Monotremes are tough to find because there aren't many of those left in the world. Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs. There are only two in Australia, platypus and the ecidna.All Mammals: have hair or fur; most give birth to live young; mothers nurse their young with milk; they have lungs and need air to breathe; are warm blooded.


There are five vertebrate groups: Reptiles; Birds; Fishes; Amphibians and Mammals

Fish are cold blooded animals that breathe with gills under the water. Most Fish have scales on the outside of their body. Some fish lay eggs, whilst others have live young.Some fish live in fresh water, whilst others live in salt water. Sharks and rays are part of a special group that have cartlidge instead of bones.


Birds are warm-blooded, have feathers, two legs and lay eggs. Not all birds fly. Emu's have very strong legs and can run very fast. Penguins have wet feathers and a waterproofing that lets them swim underwater.Birds can grow from 5cm (bee hummingbird) to 2.75m (the ostrich )All Birds: have feathers & wings; they lay eggs; have two legs; ear holes instead of ears and they are warm blooded.

Bibliography Andrew Radar Studios, 1997-2014, Vertebrates, biology4kids,, 22nd May 2014, various paragraphs.Jasmin Chapjar, Animal classification, Kids Corner,, 22nd May 2014, various paragraphs and diagrams.


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