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Polar regions are the areas that are furthest away from the equator. A group of people that live in the polar regions are called the Inuit. The extreme conditions that they must overcome are extreme temperatures, lack of food, plants and shelter. The Inuit live in snow houses(igloos) or tents made of animal skin. Some of the technologies that help the Inuit survive are snowshoes, goggles and oil lamps. Snowshoes are used so the wearer's weight can be spread across the snow to keep him/her from sinking into the snow. Goggles are used to keep the person from being blinded by the snow. Oil lamps are used as an energy source in the polar regions. We explore this environment to better understand ecological and economic impacts of climate change and to find oil. We also explore this environment to learn about the animals and how they adapt to the extreme temperatures of this environment.

Oceans are one of the most beautiful yet frightening places on earth. Two of the animals that live in the ocean are sharks and whales. The extreme conditions that they must overcome are, lack of air and light as well as the temperatures and crushing pressures. We explore this environment to find new species of marine life, sunken ships and to enhance our understanding of oceans. Two of the technologies that help us explore this environment are submarines and submersibles.

Deserts are the driest places on earth. One group of people that live in the deserts are nomads. The extreme conditions that nomads must overcome are, lack of vegetation, less than 25cm of rain per year, dust storms and sandstorms. Two technologies that help nomads survive in the desert are, Bedouin clothing that people who live in the desert wear as well as different headdresses that keep the nomads from getting sunburns and provide protection from the dust and sand. We explore this environment to better understand the climate change and to learn about the different animals and what adaptations the animals have to make to survive in the deserts.

Volcanoes are vents in the earths surface where molten rock from below the surface can rise up and spill over. Most of the earths volcanoes are located on the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean. Some dangers of living in an active volcanic area are, the risk of eruption which would cause lava flows, ash flows and toxic gases and, the extremely hot temperatures. Scientists study volcanoes to predict eruptions, learn about different minerals found in lava and to learn more about the inside of the earth. A recent volcanic eruption was on May 12, 2015 in Italy. This eruption continued for 4 days!



Polar Regions


Space is the land above the earths atmosphere. The people who explore this environment are called astronauts. The extreme conditions that astronauts must overcome are, no air, extreme temperatures, no resources and zero gravity. Two of the technologies that astronauts use to help them survive in space are rovers and space suits. We explore this environment to find new life on planets, find new planets and to find more resources and to better understand space. Three reasons why the International Space Station is important are, the research that can be done in it could not be done on earth, NASA uses lessons from the space station to get astronauts ready for more adventures in space and the International Space Station serves as a landing destination for future generation space crafts.


Canada has contributed to researching and developing many technologies for exploring extreme environments. One of them is the snowmobile which is used to explore the polar region. Some other technologies are the Canadarm and the microgravity isolation mount. These technologies are used to explore space. Canadians have also invented the Newt Suit and the Deep worker. These technologies are used to explore the oceans. Canada has also invented ROPOS which is a robotic submersible used to explore underwater volcanoes.


Canadian contributions to exploration



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