Under/Over Representation

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by laurensch4
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Under/Over Representation

Tier 1: High-quality Classroom Instruction, ScreeningTier 2: Targerted IntervantionsTier 3: Intense Interventions

Universal Design for Learning:Universal design for learning is a flexible approach to teaching that allows the curriculum to be modified to each individual student's needs. The ultimate goal is that all students are able to have access to, learn, and achieve within the curriculum through adapting instructional goals, method, materials and assessment. Accesses 3 different areas of learning:The "what" of learning: How we gather facts and categorize what we see, hear, and read. Identifying letters, words, or an author's style are recognition tasks.The "how" of learning: Planning and performing tasks. How we organize and express our ideas. Writing an essay or solving a math problem are strategic tasks.The "why" of learning: How learners get engaged and stay motivated. How they are challenged, excited, or interested. These are affective dimensions.Sometimes just one, and sometimes all, and more, of these learning areas must be adapted for each and every student to gain access to the curriculum.

"Data-basedindividualizationis an empirically provenmethod for individuallytailoring instruction forstudents with significantlearning problems."-Fuchs et al.

Multitiered Systems of Support:These multiple tiers of support incorporate the universal screening of all students. This ensures that no students are slipping through the cracks in the process. MTSS is an all-encompassing term for any tiered supports which includes both academic and behavioral. Response to Intervention (RTI) is an academic tiered system of approach and Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) is the behavioral tiered system of support that schools currently implement. DBI (data based individualization) works to use progress monitoring with students to factor in which students need the implementation of these programs. This is important to monitor each student by collecting data on them to ensure that the correct students are getting the help that they need in the areas where they truly need the support. Without this ongoing data collection monitoring it is possible that students within the system might fall through the cracks and not be helped to the best of the school's ability. This is all supported by the article we read for class written by Fuchs et al.

Lauren Schnurbusch's Glogster on UDL, MTSS, PBIS, RTI, Differentiation & MarginalizationSeptember 2015

CBEor curriuulum based evaluation is VITAL, in each of the multitiered systems. Teachers need to focus specificlly on the fundamental things that the students need to learn and the concepts that they are not grasping. It is a waste of time to focus on teaching students things that they already comprehend, but instead we must enture that students are having thw opportunity to practice the concepts in which they are lacking.

Universal screening works to compare individual's student performance to a certain standard to understand where students are struggling. It works to ask the question "What are areas of concern that are causing that problem?" -Hosp et al.

Differentiation:Differentiated instruction can occur in three different areas for students: the content, the process, and the product. Each of these three areas can be altered in order to provide students with different ways to learn that allows them access to the curriculum.

Response to Intervention:RTI is a tiered approach to student academic achievement. It is a program that constantly works to screen students for early and continual intervention. RTI works in the large classroom, small groups, and with individual students. 4 Essential Components (From RTI Website):1. High-quality, scientifically based classroom instruction. All students receive high-quality, research-based instruction in the general education classroom.2. Ongoing student assessment. Universal screening and progress monitoring provide information about a student’s learning rate and level of achievement, both individually and in comparison with the peer group. These data are then used when determining which students need closer monitoring or intervention. Throughout the RTI process, student progress is monitored frequently to examine student achievement and gauge the effectiveness of the curriculum. Decisions made regarding students’ instructional needs are based on multiple data points taken in context over time.3. Tiered instruction. A multi-tier approach is used to efficiently differentiate instruction for all students. The model incorporates increasing intensities of instruction offering specific, research-based interventions matched to student needs.4. Parent involvement. Schools implementing RTI provide parents information about their child’s progress, the instruction and interventions used, the staff who are delivering the instruction, and the academic or behavioral goals for their child.

Positive Behavior Intervention & Support:"Proactive strategies for defining, teaching, and supporting appropriate student behaviors to create positive school environments."Positive behavior intervention & support or PBIS is the multitiered system of support that focuses on student behaviors and working to enforece positive behaviors and teach students what positive behaviors are expected with the school setting.

Artiles et al. Article:This article states that "an overwhelming number of specialeducation students are poor, male, and ethnic minority." This is a disproportionate representation of school populations and is a concerning factor in our educational system today.

Under/Over Representation/Marginalization: Within the special education system in schools there is a disproportionality that can be seen. While students of color may have a lower number of students in special education, the overall percentage is incredibly high."Marginalization in education is a form of acute and persistent disadvantage rooted in underlying social inequalities. It represents a stark example of ‘clearly remediable injustice’." UNESCO, Education for All, Global Monitoring Report 2010

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Behaviorists work to collect data on measurable outcomes that students can demonstrate. This allows teachers to be more objective and not marginalization students as much. DBI works to collect data on individual students and provide reasonings for their academic supports.


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