uighurs

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uighurs

How Uyghurs view of Americans and how Americans view of them ?Uyghurs know a little about Americans because most of them don't involve in international affairs.However,Americans are familiar with them after Xinjiang Roits.

Music and dance The most prestigious and well-known genre of Uyghur music is the Muqam. Uyghur Muqam is a composite of songs, dances, folk and classical music, and characterized by diversity of content, dance styles, musical morphology and instruments used. Unlike the Arab tradition, the term muqam does not imply mode to Uyghurs. Its associations include mood, smell or style (piraq), pitch, tone of voice, person, time or place

Quick facts about them1.Unlike some other groups that follow old Turkic prohibitions against marriage to close kin, Uighur have often favored vicinal marriage or village endogamy. 2.Within the extended family, relationships are often categorized according to relative age group. For instance, older brother (aka ) is distinguished from younger brother (uka ) and elder sister (apa ) from younger sister (singil ). 3.Older-style farmhouses in the kolkhoz often accommodate extended families, including sons and their wives, who live in adjoining units around a courtyard. 4.Before collectivization, property was equally divided among the sons. 5.The Uighur, with a population of 210,602 in 1979 (up from 173,276 in 1970), were one of the smaller Soviet Central Asian nationalities. In China, however, with a population of approximately 7 million, the Uighur are the predominant Central Asian nationality. 6?The Uighur were an ancient confederation of Turkic tribes that united in the sixth century ("Uighur" means "union") and established a khanate south of Lake Baikal (Mongolia) in AD. 740.7.The Uighur name, but not its script or language, virtually disappeared for approximately 500 years.8.Traditional Uighur beliefs about death and afterlife have been influenced to a large extent by Islam. After a death, Quranic prayers are chanted, and the body is cleansed and wrapped in white gauze. The tombs of Islamic holy men are revered as sacred places. Islamic practices continue to provide a vital link among members of Uighur communities.9.Classical medicine was influenced not only by folk cures, but by Islamic and Greek philosophy and science. In the seventeenth century, Imaddidin Kashgari and his disciples advanced surgery, skin and eye treatment, and medical research.10.The classical tradition of Uighur literature that developed in the south in the following centuries reflects a strong Islamic influence.

Women in UighurUyghur women like to wear dresses and dance.Most of them believe Islam,so in some region,Uyghur women wear veil.They are treated equally because of the belief.

Art During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, scientific and archaeological expeditions to the region of Xinjiang's Silk Road discovered numerous cave temples, monastery ruins, and wall paintings, as well as miniatures, books, and documents. There are 77 rock-cut caves at the site. Most have rectangular spaces with rounded arch ceilings often divided into four sections, each with a mural of Buddha. The effect is of an entire ceiling covered with hundreds of Buddha murals. Some ceilings are painted with a large Buddha surrounded by other figures, including Indians, Persians and Europeans. The quality of the murals vary with some being artistically naive while others are masterpieces of religious art.

Social Organization. Unlike Central Asian nomadic and seminomadic groups, the Uighur have lost all sense of tribal and clan association. Social organization and identity among the former Soviet Uighur differ according to regional ties (and, to some extent, class affiliation). The northern Uighur, living in Semirichie, retain a stronger sense of Uighur identity. Intellectuals of this region have promoted ethnic unity with the Uighur across the Chinese border. On the other hand, southern Uighur often identify with a Muslim, Turkic, or Turkistani social group rather than a specifically Uighur one. Such social ties relate to current residence patterns, as well as older affiliations. Whereas southern Uighur have been assimilated to a large extent by the Uzbeks, northern Uighur, living in more isolated groups near the Chinese border, retain a stronger sense of ethnic identity. Such divergence may be influenced by older cleavages as well: southern Uighur were more completely integrated into the Islamic aegis, whereas northern Uighur retained a separate identity (if closely linked to the Chinese and Mongol empires) for a longer period.

Map of uighurs in China

In AD 546, the Fufulo led the Tiele tribes in a struggle against the Türk tribe in the power vacuum left by the breakup of the Rouran state.

In AD 600, Sui China allied with Erkin Tegin, Bey of the Uyghur tribe, against the Göktürk Empire, their common enemy. This alliance was the first historical mention of the Uyghur tribe, which then resided in the Tuul River Valley with a population of 10,000 yurts (~40,000 people).

AD 611, the Uyghur led by the Seyanto (Ch. Xueyantuo) defeated a Göktürk invasion; however, in AD 615 they were placed under Göktürk control again by Shipi Qaghan. From AD 648-657, the Uyghur, under Pojuan Ilteber (婆闰), worked as mercenaries for the Chinese in their annexation of the Tarim Basin.

By AD 688, the Ugyhur were controlled again by the Göktürks. After a series of revolts coordinated with their Chinese allies, the Uyghur emerged as the leaders of the Tokuz-Oguz and Tiele once again.

In AD 744 taking advantage of the power shift caused by the battle of Talas, the Uyghur, with their Basmyl and Qarluq allies, under the command of Qutlugh Bilge Köl, defeated Göktürks.

Timeline

They live in half-timbered structure houses,included hall way and carving everywhere.You can see Uyghurs situnder grapes trellis,dancing and resting.Uyghurs live a relax life.

Migration and settlementMany Uighur migrated southwest to the desert-oasis regions north of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Province, China). In Kazakhstan, the Uighur have settled an area that forms an almost uninterrupted belt in the Alma-Ata Oblast. In Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, the Uighur live in scattered areas interspersed among the indigenous populations. In the Soviet period, Uighur kolkhoz settlements, often several hundred farmsteads, tended to cluster together according to original Uighur residence patterns, and quarters or villages were modeled after former settlements in China's Xinjiang Province. Although original village boundaries were retained, Uighur kolkhozy have been internally restructured. Formerly, mosques and bazaars dominated the center of town or village. Now administrative buildings, along with farmsteads, clubs, agricultural stores, schools, and other cultural establishments line the streets.

CultureMost remain their own culture.One group of Uighur likely became absorbed into the Chinese Empire, whereas another migrated south to became directly antecedent to the Yugur (Yellow Uighur) of China's Gansu Province.

Bibliography Akiner, Shirin (1986). Islamic Peoples of the Soviet Union: An Historical and Statistical Handbook. 2d ed. London: KPI. Bennigsen, Alexandre, and S. Enders Wimbush (1986). Muslims of the Soviet Empire: A Guide. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Gladney, Dru C. (1990). "The Ethnogenesis of the Uighur." Central Asian Survey9(1). Kolarz, Walter (1952). Russia and Her Colonies. New York: Praeger. Rakowska-Harmstone, Theresa (1983). "Islam and Nationalism: Central Asia and Kazakhstan under Soviet Rule." Central Asian Survey 20(2). Rossabi, Morris, ed. (1983). China among Equals. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Yasinov, D. (1989). "Osak Wadisida Shadiyana Tantana: Panfilov Rayonidiki Uighur Madaniyiti Kunliri." Bizning Watan (Alma-Ata), no. 19:306.

FoodNang,Chuan,Fried Rice with lamb

Languageئۇيغۇر تىلى Uighur

Uighur

Religion The ancient Uyghurs believed in Shamanism and Tengrism then Manichaeism,Buddism andChurch of the East.However, modern Uyghurs are primarily Muslim,and they arethe second largest Muslim ethnic group in China after the Hui.

In 1211,Uyghur was destroyed by the king of Naiman.

In 1218,Naiman was destroyed by Mongolia.However,during that period,most Uyghurs are controlled by Naiman riches.

In 1884,Uyghur is set up as a province.

In 1234,Uyghur were merged into a branch of Mongolia.

During 1755 and 1757,Qing Dynasty pacified Dzungaria rebellion and took the control of Uyghur.

TraditionWedding is the brightest celebration of the Uighurs. It has importance not only for individuals, but also for society, since the marriage means the emergence of a new family in society. Wedding ceremony consists of three stages - pre-wedding, wedding and post-wedding. As a rule, a ritual of asking in marriage precedes the wedding.  Father of the groom along with other senior relatives and respected men, whom it is difficult to refuse to, come forward as the matchmakers. Having arrived in the house of the bride, the matchmakers inform the households of the purpose of their visit. Usually, the parents do not give their consent immediately. After persuasions, and sometimes, in the following visit, the matchmakers finally come to consent. The obligatory condition is the approval of the marriage on the part of the bride’s close relatives. Mostly, it bears formal character, in a kind of homage to them. The large "toy" - festivity is preceded by the “tatliq çai “ - the sweet tea ceremony, (sometimes the  “maqul çeji” - the consent tea ceremony, the “tazym çeji”, “kiçik çai” – the small tea ceremony), in which gifts are presented to the bride’s parents for the consent, and the parties arrange conditions and terms of "toy", and that is of specially importance, set the "seliq" – so-called redemption for the bride. The "seliq" consists of gifts to the bride, her parents and relatives. It also includes the "aniliq" - gifts from the groom to the bride’s mother, as gratitude for her taking care about her daughter. The “seliq” seems to replace bride-price, existence of which in antiquity is reflected in the Chinese annals... » 24. Besides the gifts, the "seliq” covers all expenses associated with the wedding festivities in the bride parents’ house. Amount and quality of the "seliq" always were different and were defined by well-being of the groom. At present, large role in social life of Uighur community belongs to “zhigit beşi” – the head of the men. It is an elective position, to which the assembly of a community appoints a respected man who perfectly knows all rites and traditions and possesses necessary managerial skills. In many communities, in the presence of the matchmakers, “zhigit beşi” announces amount of the “seliq” set by the parties, and can, under some circumstances, solve certain arguable issues in favor of the groom and bride. Even nowadays, sometimes one can observe an old form of marriage by elopement of the bride – the “qyz apçeqış”. This phenomenon takes place when the bride’s parents would not give their consent for marriage. However, as frequently it happens in life, the parents soon after their daughter’s elopement would come to consent and celebrate wedding.The wedding lasts three days. The day before wedding the groom’s party delivers foodstuffs for festivities in the bride’s house – the “mal-gürüç" – cattle-rice. Along with foodstuffs they bring a bull-calf, with a white kerchief tied round his horns. The bride should have the same kerchief on the wedding day. During the day the groom’s relatives are shown around in the bride’s house and hand over the brought foodstuffs. Close relatives and friends are invited in the house of the groom and the bride to cut carrots - the “sävzä qaläm” for a dish called “polo” – pilaf. The festivity and ceremony of the parties’ introduction – the “täg malisi” take place in the evening. There is an interesting detail - at the beginning of the festivity the bride’s relatives lay down the table for their new relatives, and later on the groom’s relatives assume the rights of the hosts and attend to the bride’s party. The day before the wedding the bride’s girlfriend and her mother come to the bride’s parents. They bring two trays of sweets and take the bride to their home on the bride’s parents’ consent. In their house in the wedding day they have hen party – the “qiz mälisi”. The groom has a bachelor party in his friend’s house. Morning of the wedding day, the guests arrive, first men, and then - women. Music, dances and plentiful feast accompany the wedding. After the festivity has ended the groom’s party begins a ceremony of the dowry chest opening – the “sanduq eçiş”. Contents of the chest including groom’s dowry and gifts from his relatives are shown to the guests. Afterwards contents of the bride’s chest are shown. On the part of the bride, a highly respected woman appointed for the show displays her dowry. After the ceremony, the gifts and chests with contents are handed over to the groom’s mother. The crucial moment of any wedding is the ceremony of wedding – the "neka". Despite that in the earlier days, the presence of the bride in the ceremony was not necessary, at present, both the groom and the bride take part in it. Therefore, the ceremony of neka is preceded by the bride pricing of the bride from her girlfriend’s house by the groom’s friends with the help of "yanga", the wife of the groom’s brother or uncle, most glib and eloquent woman. The bride and groom are taken into the bride’s house, where in the presence of the proxies, the Muslim wedding - neka takes place. Mullah carries out the neka. The bride and groom are given to drink from a bowl with mixed water, salt, bread and sugar. The salt is a symbol of strength of their feelings. Sugar is a symbol of sweet life, the bread - welfare. That who has eaten up bread first, believed to be ruling their family. After the neka, the bride is taken into the groom’s house. She says good-bye to her parents and the latter bless her for the family life. The brightest moment of the wedding ceremony is the kindling of a campfire in front of the groom’s house before new wife enters the house of her spouse. Newly-weds, hand in hand, go around the fire thrice. The purging by fire means to protect from adversity and bring happiness to the new family. The rite is similar to the ancient rite of many Turkic nomads to walk a newly wife around the fire for three times in the yurt of her husband. The fire as the aversive force is used by many peoples of Central Asia. The day after the wedding festivities, the groom’s parents receive the new wife’s relatives and friends. The custom has different names. Some call it “uzaşqa", the others - "çilaq". The purpose of it is to get closer for the relatives of the newly wedded. The young husband with his friends visits his wife’s senior relatives – the “salamğa keliş”. The latter give him presents and things necessary in use. There is another interesting traditional custom, which exists nowadays. It is the visiting of the new wife’s parents by the newly weds on the first Friday after the wedding. The Uighurs have been observing this custom from time immemorial. After the wedding the young married woman visited her mother every Friday. This day the mother combed the daughter’s hair and braided it. The roots of the tradition could be traced to matrilocality.

EcomomyThey have a profound history of more than two thousand years. Historical records indicate that Uygur people had strong trade and communication links with a variety of middle Asian countries and other ethnic groups of China. They work mainly with agriculture though are talented in the construction of handicrafts which are constructed for commercial purposes.


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