Treating Eye Diseases with Stem Cells

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by TaylorFrint
Last updated 6 years ago

Cell Biology

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Treating Eye Diseases with Stem Cells

Treating Eye Diseases with Stem Cells


The nuclear envelope begins to reform around chromosomes, chromosomes become less visible, and cytokinesis pinches in and cell membranes begin to form.

The cytoplasm divides and new nuclei compartmentalizes into separate daughter cells.

3 parts- growth 1 (G1), synthesis, growth 2 (G2)G1-Cell prepares for DNA and chromosome replicationSynthesis- DNA replicates creating 2 exact copies called sister chromatids.G2-Cells grow for division and organelles duplicated

Early prophase- DNA and proteins condense and become visible, centrioles begin to move apart, and the nuclear envelope begins to disappear.Late prophase- centrioles are on either side of thenucleus, spindle fibers begin to form, chromosomes are in homologus pairs, and the nuclear envelope is gone.

Homologus pairs are held by a centromere, spindle fibers attach at centromere, and the spindle fibers push and pull the pairs to the middle of the cell.







Chromosome-any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear orderChromatin-the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus, consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins, that forms chromosomes during cell division.Chromatid-one of two identical chromosomal strands into which a chromosome splits in preparation for cell divisionCytoplasm-the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus,Centriole- a small, cylindrical cell organelleSpindle fiber- cell structure used to pull apart chromosomesCentromere- a specialized structure on the chromosome, appearing during cell division as the constricted central region where the two chromatids are held together and form an X shape.

Totipotent- cells have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell. Pluripotent-cells can develop into many kinds of cells but not all kindsMultipotent-cells can produce only the type of cells that are unique to a tissue Unipotent-cells can only be one type of cell.

Centromeres migrate to opposite ends of the poles, centrioles and spindle fibers pull the daughter chromosomes towards the poles, and cytokinesis begins

Important Terms

The stem cells used in this research are embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are totipotent, so they can become any type of cell. This study is using these cells to replace cells in the eye in order to possibly improve vision. These cells replace the old cells in the eye and when mitosis happens, the stem cells become healthy cells that are dispersed throughout the eye. This treatment will not cure blindness, but if an eye disease is caught early enough, it may be able to prevent the disease from progressing and eventually causing blindness.

Types of Cells

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