Thutmose III

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Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Ancient History
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Thutmose III

Thutmose IIIThutmoe's reorganisaton of the egyptian military formed the basis for the success of the egyptian empire during the new kingdom period .

Thutmose III smiting his enemies. Relief on the seventh pylon in Karnak.

The sixth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty was Thutmose III. When his father Thutmose II died his aunt, Hatshepsut assumed control of the throne because of Thutmose III's age , he was to young to rule. He spent most of the time in Egyptian military during Hatshepsut reign. This prepared him well for his own role as pharaoh after Hatshepsut's death .

Thutmosis III statue in Luxor Museum

The enemies of Egypt tried to capitalise on the death of Hatshepsut and planned to seize control of Egypt assuming Thutmose III lacked experience to stop them .Thutmose III understood the necessity of supply lines and to move quickly to surprise the enemy off guard , which was demonstrated during the events that lead to the battle of Megiddo. It was believed that who ever had control over Megiddo controlled the trade routes of the ancient world.Thutmose III's war counsel advised him to take an easy route into the city , however he chose an unexpected route through the mountains which required his army to travel single file , positioning him behind the enemy armies, catching them off guard and forcing them to redeploy their army. Many of the enemies warriors fled in fear when they saw the pharaoh leading the charge .

Timeline of Rule BC. 1482 - Thutmose III assumes full power over the royal throne after Hatshepsut dies. Battle of MegiddoBC. 1482/62 - Thutmose III leads seventeen campaigns BC 1474 - Thutmose III captures Kadesh and erects first oblesik at Temple of Amun ar KarnakBC 1471 - Erects second oblesik after conquest of Naharin, capturing Carchamesh and crossing the Euphrates River. BC 1469 - Tenth campaign - Victory against the revolt of NaharinBC 1468 - Third Oblesik erected at temple of Re at HeliopolisBC 1465 - Fourteenth campaign - victory at Shasu (Bedouins). BC 1462 - Seventeenth campaign - second victory at Kadesh (co-regency with his son Amenhotep II)BC 1450 Thutmose III dies and royal throne is passed to Amenhotep II

Based on timeline P 159 Studies in Ancient Eygpt

The traditional Egyptian army was lead by the pharoah but the pharaoh did not usually lead by example . The army consisted of 5000 troops which where split up into 20 groups of 250 and they where lead by standard bearers . The groups were further split up into 5 platoons of 50 and they were commanded by a 'chief of fifty'. Backing up the infantry were charoits which act as a flanking force , scouts and a support for the infantry against cavalry . The groups were sorted by experience ranging from experienced to new recruits .The Pharaoh was guarded by a group of elite soldiors called the 'Braves Of The King'. Scribes follow around armies and recored every thing from supplies , troops and the battles that the army takes part in . The scribes also recored bravery and loyalty of the soldoirs which would later be rewarded with loot and land . Thutmose III's army consised of only three elements hand to hand fighters, archers, and chariotry.

Thutmose III was the first person in history to take full advantage of sea power in his campaigns . He used his navy to transport troops and supplies to the front line of his campaign, allowing him to move quickly and still have supplies . Thutmose III is renowned for his great success having never lost a battle. Thutmose III always treated the conquered with great humanity , but if they revolted he would punish them harshly.

In the process of Thutmose III defending Egypt from its enemies he gained control over a vast amount of neighbouring territory expanding its borders in turn growing in power, wealth and strength. With the wealth egypt made amazing art works , tombs and buildings. Another result of the wealth came a strong economic basis and egypt gained a strong trade relation with its neighbours. Thutmose III's achevments through his military genius brought about great wealth and he and his family resided over a 'golden age ' which was never replicated.


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