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THERMODYNAMICSLaws and Vocabulary

The Third Law of ThermodynamicsAll objects have particles that are moving. These particles have kinetic energy. The greater amount of kinetic energy a particle has, the greater its temperature. If an object's particles slow down and lose kinetic energy, its temperature also drops. The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that the absolute zero cannot be reached. Absolute zero is the lowest theoretically possible temperature. It occurs when the particles in an object stop moving completely and have a temperature of -273.15 degrees Celsius.

The First Law of ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics states that overall amount of energy is conserved. Therefore, energy cannot be created or destroyed, only lost to an outside system. For example, if you are heating a pot on a stove, the majority of the heat energy is transferred from the stove burner to the pot, but some energy escapes and is transferred to the outside air. No energy was created or destroyed, but energy was moved to different systems. This law can be expanded to the apply to the universe as well. The total amount of energy in the univerese will also remain constant. No matter what, all energy can be accounted for.

1. Thermodynamics- the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy.2. Absolute Zero-the lowest temperature that is theoretically possible, at which the motion of particles that constitutes heat would be minimal. It is zero on the Kelvin scale, equivalent to –273.15°C or –459.67°F.3. Entropy-a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.4. Temperature- the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale; the measure of an object's kinetic energy.5. Heat-the transfer of kinetic energy 6. Calorie-the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C (now usually defined as 4.1868 joules).7. Energy- the ability to do work. Energy can be transferred or converted, but never created or destroyed. 8. Potential Energy- the energy associated with position and size. It is energy that is sorted and waiting to be used later.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics This law states energy naturally flows from hotter objects to cooler objects. In order for energy to flow from a colder object to a hotter object, work must be done. When heat is converted into work, the efficiency, or output of usable work, will always be less than 100%. The input heat not converted into work is called waste heat.

9. Kinetic energy-the energy an object has due to its motion. 10. Exothermic- a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light, electricity, or sound11. Endothermic-a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings in the form of heat12. Thermal Expansion- an increase in volume because of heating13. Thermal Contraction- a decrease in volume because of cooling14. Radiation-the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.15. Convection- the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.16. Conduction-the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.


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