The Vietnam War

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by sophiek1
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Social Studies
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The Vietnam War


22.1 Moving Toward ConflictThe U.S. allied with Ngo Dinh Diem against Ho Chi Minh, the Vietminh, and the local Vietcong to stop the spread of Communism from reaching Southern Vietnam. PresidentEisenhower envisioned an easy success, believing that taking on one communist country would act as a domino effect or his Domino Theory.However, it resulted in a loss for the French atDien Bien Phu; a battle that utilized millions of dollars for the [U.S.].The U.S., Vietnam and other countries established the Geneva Accords to set up boundaries and peace; but eventually Ho Chi Minh began supporting the Vietcong, who sent supplies through the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Congress thenadopted the Tonkin Gulf Resolution for president Johnson to take onmore power militarily.

22.2 U.S. Involvment and EscalationU.S. involvement increased when the Johnson Administration, Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara and Sec. of State Dean Rusk helped get troops to Vietnam. William Westmoreland was the general in charge in Vietnam. He had American soldiers train the Army of the Republic of Vietnam to strengthen their military. The U.S. soldiers and the ARVN worked hard to distinguish the Vietcong from the villagers by using substances like Agent Orange and Napalm in their jungles to drive them out; also Search and Destory Missions. Eventhough they believed to be saving and protecting the people, it injured them physically and mentally. The Americans at home saw what truly was going on, which caused the for widening of the Credibility Gap. It affected Johnson and his future.

22.4 1968: A Tumultuous YearVietcong agents or the Tet Offensive attacked 100 Southern Vietnam towns and cities, U.S. air bases and the U.S. Embassy, killing 5 Americans during the Vietnamese New Year's Eve holiday, Tet. The Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara resigned after losing faith in the war, and President Johnson chose Clark Clifford to take over the position. During this time, Robert Kennedy had decided not to be a candidate for the Democratic Presidency, so the Democrats chose Eugene McCarthy instead to go against Johnson. But Johnson decided to resign, and the Democrats saw Herbert Humphrey as a better candidate than McCarthy. There were many protests around the entire ordeal of the Democratic Candidates, and just to add to the trouble, George Wallace became the third party candidate. But all lost to the Republication: Richard Nixon.

22.3 A Nation DividedThe draft was used to put (or force) Amercian men into the military service. The Students for a Democratic Society branched off as a New Left organization that called for greater freedom for individuals and the renewing of a "Participatory Democracy". They were against the government demanding young men to go to war; the students began the Free Speech Movement to gain their rights on campus. However, there were many who also believed in sending troops into war for U.S. safety and thought that there should be an increase in the military power in Vietnam. This divided belief led to a split and separation of people and the creation of two groups. The Doves: the antiwar group and The Hawks: who were pro-war.

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22.5 The End of the War & Its LegacyIn 1969, the new president, Richard Nixon, planned with National Security adviser, Henry Kissinger to pull the troops from Vietnam and end the prolonged war. They wanted to use Vietnamization policy to remove troops slowly so the S. Vietnamese could begin to fight on their own. There were many protesters who did not agree with the My Lai tragedy and at Kent State University disaster struck and ended with the burning of the ROTC building, police interference, and killings. The Silent Majority who agreed with the policies in a moderate manner who kept to themselves. The leaked Pentagon Papers showed everyone how dishonest the government had truly been. In the end result, Congress passed the War Powers Act to limit the power of the president's say in war.

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