The Skeletal System

by jessikadrobek
Last updated 5 years ago

Human Anatomy

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The Skeletal System

The Skeletal System

os·te·ol·o·gyˌästēˈäləjēnounthe study of the structure and function of the skeleton and bony structures.

Each joint is specialized in shape and structure which helps control the movement and range of motion. Ball and socket joints and synovial joints that have the highest range of motion. The only types of this joint in the human body are the shoulder and hip joints. Ball-and-socket joints are classified as multiaxial joints because they can move bones along several axes. The muscles that surround the joints allow the humerus and femur to move away from the body. Other parts of the body, such as the wrist and ankles, have at least two separate joints working together that act as the ball and socket joints. A hinge joint is a common class of synovial joint that includes the ankle, elbow, and knee joints. Hinge joints are formed between two or more bones where the bones can only move along one axis to flex or extend (back and forth). Gliding joints allow the bones to glide past one another in any direction along the plane of the joint – up and down, left and right, and diagonally. Pivot joints are joints that allow bones to rotate. In a pivot joint, a cylinder shaped bone rotates inside another bone or ligament that forms a ring around it. An example of a pivot joint is between your skull and the top vertabrae which allows us to turn our heads from side to side.

Just as other systems in the body, the skeletal system has a variety of possible diseases and injuries. If there is too much stress on a bone, it is possible to fracture or break. The severity of the break is based upon the density of the bone, how strong it is and which bone it is. Osteoporosis is a common disease among elderly people. The bone loses calcium, becomes thinner and more brittle, and may disappear altogether. Arthritis is a group of imflammatory diseases that damages joints and surrounding structures. Pain in joints is sometimes caused by bursitis. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces for muscles to move over bones.

Bones are composed of a matrix, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and collagen fibers. They are hard structures because of the calcium build up. The outside of bones are covered in periosteum and are composed of two types of material: compact bone and cancellous bone. The compact bone is a solid mass on the exterior while the cancellous is spongy, sometimes on the inside or outside, and reduces stress on the entire bone itself. Bones without the cancellous mass have a medullary cavity. Long bones such as the femur are hollow and contain adipose tissue or red marrow. The medullary cavity is lined with endosteum, which is a thin line of connective tissues. Marrow of all bones created red blood cells at birth but as adults only major bones such as the skull, thoracic cage, and spinal column only create red blood cells.

The skeletal system provides vital daily functions such as support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation.-Mechanical. Support. Bones provide a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues. -Protective. Bones such as the skull and rib cage protect vital organs from injury. Bones also protect the marrow.-Metabolic. Mineral storage.


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