The Respiratory System

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by skpe13
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Human Anatomy
Grade:
12

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The Respiratory System

Nasal Cavity:- Warm, filter and moisten the incoming air, before it enters the lungs.- Dust and other particles from the enviroment become trapped in the mucus.Epiglottis:- A small flap of cartilage attached to opening of the larynx.- It prevents food from entering the trachea.Pharynx:- The place in which throat divides into the trachea and the oesophagus .Larynx:- Also known as the voice box.- The Larynx protects the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any unwanted objects pass the epiglottis. Trachea:- The tube in which air is carried from the throat into the lungs- The membrane inside the trachea is covered in tiny hairs called cilia, which catch particles, dust and bacteria which is removed through coughing.- The trachea is surrounded by 15-20 C-shaped cartilage rings that act as ptotection and keep it open.Bronchus/Bronchi:- The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi.- Irregular rings of cartilage surround the bronchi for protection and to keep the branches open.Bronchioles:- Bronchi divide into bronchioles which then lead to alveoli sacs.- Bronchioles carry air from the trachea and bronchi to the alveoli in lungs.Lungs:- Respiration and gas exchange take place in the lungs.- Oxygen enters lungs and diffuses into capillaries.- Carbon dioxide (a waste product from metabolic activities) diffuses out of capillaries into the alveoli and leaves body when we exhale.Lobes: - There are 5 lobes within the lungs: 3 on the right (superior, middle and inferior) and two on the left (superior, inferior)- Each lobe is seperated by thin walls of tissue called fissures.- All lobes contain bronchioles and alveoli which are used during gas exchange. Pleural Membrane:- The pleural membrane holds the two lungs within the pleural cavity. - They alos make sure the lungs remain expanded during exhilation and can move along each other smoothly during breathing. Thoracic Cavity:- The Thoracic Cavity includes everything in the chest and starts from the neck to the diafram. - Inside the chest is the thoracic organs which are protected by the thoracic cage (the ribs, vertebral column and the sternum).- The thoracic organs include the lungs and the heart.- The thoracic cavity is lined with a serous membrane which secretes a thin fluid. Visceral Pleura:- The Viceral pleuraI is a thin layer of tissue that lines the surface of the lungs. - It is made up of small mesothelial cells.- It merges with the parietal pleura at the bottom of the lungs.- It acts as a lubricant on the lungs surface.Pleural Fluid:- Found between the tissues surrounding lungs.- The fluid prevents friction between the lungs and the chest cavity during inhilation and exhilation .Alvioli:- The air sacs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration.- The walls are one cell thick which means there is a short diffusion pathway for oxygen and carbon dioxide.- The aiir sac increase the surface are of the lungs so gas exchange increases.Diafram: - The diafram is attached to the sternum, spine and ribs. - It is a muscle used during respiration to move the ribs when the lung expand and relax during exhilation and inhilation.External Intercostal Muscles:- External intercostals are found around the ribs.- These muscles contract during inhalation, when the internal intercostals relax this causes the thoracic cavity to widen.- The external intercostals are thicker that the internal itercostals.Internal Intercostal Muscles:- The internal intercostals are found in between the ribs.- The internal intercostals are only used during forceful exhalation- During exercise and coughing.- During exhalation, the internal intercostals contract and the externals relax.

Structure and Function of the Respiratory System

Tidal volume is the amount of air that enters the lungs during normal inhilation. The average amoun of tidal volume is 500ml and the amounr increases during excercise. Also the same amount of tidal volume should leave the lungs during exhilation.

The Respratory System

Inspiratory reserve volume is the amount of extra air that is inhaled during a deep breath in. It can reach a volume of3000 ml.Expiratory reserve volume on the other hand, is the extra amount of air which can be exhaled during a forceful breath out.

Vital capacity is the total amount of air a person can exhale from the lungs after a maximum inhalation.

Residule volume is the total amount of air left in someone's lungs after maximum exhilation.

Total lung capacity is the total amount of air the lungs can hold. The total capacity can differ for different people depening on their age, gender, height and health.It can be calculated with vital lung capacity + residual volume.

Expiration is when the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways and out of the respratory during a breath out.Inspiration is the movement of air in of the bronchial tubes, through the airways and into the lungs during a breath in.

The medulla oblongata is located in the brain and it helps to regulate breathing. It reeceives messages from chemoreceptors found in the arteries and sends the messages to the internal and external intercostal muscles and diafram telling them to contract. This process allows oxygen to enter lungs and carbon dioxide to leave lungs as it controls movement of respiratory muscles and gas exchange takes place.Chemoreceptors are found in the arteries and they monitor the carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the blood and send these messages to the medulla oblongata in the brain. If the levels of oxygen decrease, the ventilation increase the raise the oxygen levels. If carbon dioxide levels increase then carbonic acid is released into the blood stream.

Gas exchange happens in the avlioli. The gasses exchange through diffusion. Diffusion is the process in which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. CO2 in the blood, diffuses into the alvioli from the capilary and oxygen which has been taken in through inhilation diffuses into the capilary throught the one cell thick alvioli wall.


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