[2015] Stephanie Hofland: The Punic Wars

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by klimeks
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[2015] Stephanie Hofland: The Punic Wars

1st War


2nd War

3rd War

-Punic means "purple" in Latin-Fought from 264 BC until 241 BC-Conflict between Rome and Carthage-Battles fought mostly on the island of Sicily, which is the land they both desired-Carthage had controlled most of Sicily, but Rome ruled the entire Italian peninsula, and Sicily is only two miles away from Italy-Rome had a strong army, but no navy, while Carthage had one of the best navies of the time-Rome captured one of the Carthage ships and used it as a model for their own-Since Rome wasn't skilled at fighting on water, they added small bridges to the front of their ships so they could board Carthage ships and fight face to face-Romans gained skill at sea and stopped needing these bridges, but when they couldn't decide victory one way or the other, the Romans brought the fighting to the Carthaginian homeland, in Africa-Rome won the first Punic War when Carthage gets tired of war and agreed to terms in 241 BC

-Began in 218 BC and ended in 201 BCRome forced Carthage to pay for war damages, but they didn't have anything left to pay the mercenaries, which led to the Mercenary war-While Carthage was preoccupied with its own war, Rome took control of Corsica and Sardinia, this cut off Carthage's main trade routes-After Carthage had a successful attack on Seguntum, a Roman ally, they crossed the Ebro River, which violated the treaty with Rome-After this, Rome declared war on Carthage-Used war elephants at this time-The Carthagians had many victories against Rome, Rome was fearful and elected a dictator, who started using "Fabian Tactics" where they deprived Carthage of supplies instead of actually fighting them-In the Battle of Cannae the Romans were completely destroyed, but Carthage failed to take the city, so Rome raised another Army and Carthage was running out of resources-Rome again took the fighting to Carthagian land-The final battle was the Battle of Zama, many elephants were used in this battle-Carthage is beaten and surrenders, they then sued for peace within a year because the Roman terms were too harsh

-Roman veterans had nowhere to go and no work back home, known as the "victorious soldier problem", they decided the solution was to send them back to war, this time in Greece to fight Phillip who backed Carthage in the 2nd war-The Romans had begun using throwing spears-Rome defeated the Macedonians and soon became the masters of Greece, before this time, no army using the technique Phillip used had ever been defeated-Meanwhile, Carthage, who wasn't able to have an army because to the Romans terms, was by a neighbor, who was once an ally, desperate, they appealed to Rome for help, reluctantly, they gave aid to Carthage-The ambassadors sent to Carthage were upset that Carthage had built their economy and grew great fruits-So, out of desperation, Carthage fought back against its neighbor and Rome declared war-Began in 149 BC and ended in 146 BC-The Romans sieged the city and eventually took it-They killed the men and enslaved all the women and children and burnt the city to the ground-The great Carthaginian civilization had ended


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