[2015] Hailey Enstad: The Punic Wars

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[2015] Hailey Enstad: The Punic Wars

The Punic Wars

261-241 BC

The First Punic War

The Second Punic War 218-201 BC

The Third Punic War 149-146 BC

--Due to Rome becoming an expanding empire, and closing in on Cathage land, King Pyrrhus predicted the war between Rome and Carthage.--With the fear of Carthage developing too much control, war was started between the two.

--Rome was up against one of the strongest navies, while they didn't have one.--They were able to capture a Cathage warship and make copies.-They advanced the warships by adding corvuses - bridges.--Romans became experienced enough to not use the corvus.

--Romans decided to take battle to their Carthage's homeland, hopiong for peace.--In 256 BC, they won the at Caoe Ecnomus and proceeded into Africa--Romans were beaten by Xanthippus who helped the Cathaginians improve their army.

--Romans cut off supplies entering into Sicily (Cathage's city) --Resulted in Carthage accepting peace--Hamilcar Barca - Carthaginian commander, forced to leave with his army--Romans made Carthages pay war fees, while Romans took control of Carthage land

--Roman soldiers returned and had no where to live --Soldiers were sent back to war to defeat Greece--Phillip V of Macedonia helped Carthage, so revenge was needed--Rome fought in legion formation--Greece fought in phalanx formation

--Due to Rome making Carthage pay war damages, they were not able to pay the mercenaries.--The Mercenary War broke out in 240 BC and lasted until 237 BC.--During their war, Rome took Corsica and Sardinia which forced Carthage to relocate

--Hamilar Barca moved to Iberia and planned to attack Rome eventually.--His son, Hannibal, who took an oath to hate Rome as well, took over after his father's dealth.--Hannibal attacked Rome's ally, Seguntum --After succeeded he violated treaty with Rome by corring the Ebro River.

--Rome declared war on Carthage--While Rome headed toward Spain, Hannibal set off to make allies with the Gauls.--Hannibal was victorious over Rome, which caused Rome to elect a dictator, Fabius.--Fabius thought it would be best to avoid battle, which worked but destroyed Rome's pride,

--After Fabius' reign, the consuls decided to battle.--At the Battle of Cannae, Hannibal's army was outnumbered by the large Roman army.--Hannibal was succesful by surrounding army and then attacking.--Hannibal then tried to make the city of Rome surrender--With no equipment, Hannibal didn't succeed.

--General Scipio, let Roman armies back into Africa.--This caused Hannibal to return to Carthage.--Final battle was in Zama--Prior to this battle, Hannibal and Scipio became friends,--Hannibal was defeated and surrendered under Roman Terms

--Romans used many war tactics learned from previous wars--They used a pilum (throwing stick) that originated from the Gauls--They also carried a small sword, which was also used by the Iberians.--Adopted the elephant idea from Hannibal.

--Carthage was under the Roman terms, which prevented them from having an army--It was attacked by Masinissa, and asked Rome for help--Cato was sent to Carthage and returned with a prosperious fruit which angered him

--Rome declared that Carthage should be defeated --Rome took the city and burnt it to the ground--The Carthaginian civilization ended with the final flame


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