[2015] Amy Powlish: The Punic Wars: 264 B.C-146 B.C

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[2015] Amy Powlish: The Punic Wars: 264 B.C-146 B.C

The Punic Wars:264 B.C.-146 B.C.

First Punic War 264-241

Hamilcar Barca relocated to Iberia( Spain) hoping to attack Rome and expand the Carthaginian territory with an army from Spain. Hamilcar added the territory to the empire. Hamilcar passed away so his son, Hannibal, took over as the new leader of Carthage in Iberia. Rome declaried war on Carthage once again.

The Battle of Zama was the final battle. Scipio, Rome’s commander, defeated Hannibal which resulted in Carthage losing Iberia. Carthage had to pay for war damages, and its navy was limited. They also had to agree to the terms that they could not build an army without the Romans' permission

The Romans sent an army towards Spain. Hannibal’s brother, Hasdrubal, stayed in Spain to defend the land while Hannibal’s army crossed over the Pyrenees Mountain and the Rhone River, then finally into the Alps. Hannibal, on the right. had successful victories including Trebia River and Lake Trasimene.

Second Punic War 218-201

Third Punic War 149-146

Carthage was in control of most of Sicily in 264 B.C. Rome had control over the Italian peninsula and Sicily, which was only two miles away from the rest of the Roman land. Rome decided to get involved in this war because they were afraid that the Carthaginians were expanding their power. .

The First Punic War lasted from 264 to 241 BC. This was a war between Rome and Carthage, taking place on the island of Sicily. .

Rome didn't have a navy and Carthage had a strong navy. Over the first war, Rome’s navy improved. Rome won the first war in 241 B.C. and became the most powerful navy in the Mediterranean. Carthage paid for the damages and gave up all their land on the island of Sicily.

Rome decided that the best solution was to send the soldiers back to the war, but this time instead of Carthage, it would be Greece. Rome’s new fighting technique was made up of smaller and more flexible units. The Macedonians stayed in an organized single unit. They used a long pike and the Romans used a spear and a small sword. The Romans defeated Macedonia and soon ran Greece.

After the second war, Carthage became a small area in North Africa and Rome took over more of the Carthage territory. Roman soldiers' fate was unknown since they had been away for so long. They did not know what life was going to be like when they reached home. This became known as the “victorious solider problem” which is when the unemployed soldiers went to the city of Rome to find work..

Carthage violated the agreement that they would not have an army when they were attacked by Masinissa. The Romans took the Carthage city, killing the men and making the women and children be slaves to the Romans. They also burnt the city and put salts into the fields, so nothing could grow there. The Roman empire was now in North Africa.

Pictured on the left is Hamilcar Barca. He was known to be a successful commander against the Romans. However, after the Romans cut off their food supply, Hamilcar had to go back to Africa.

A new leader known as Fabius appeared. He was elected dictator after the Romans realized that they were desperate. Fabius believed the best way to defeat Hannibal was to not go into battle. His mission was to cut off their supplies, this was known as Fabian Tactics.


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