The Nile (history project)

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by sherlocksscarves
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Social Studies
Ancient History

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The Nile (history project)

The ancient egyptians believed that their pharaoh was the mortal embodiment of the god Horus. This gave him copious amounts of power and respect from his subjects. This may have been part of the reason that so many magnificent feats were accomplished by this group of people. The people were so devoted to their pharaoh that they would essentially do anything and everything the pharaoh commanded. The pharaoh had ultimate control over everyhting that happend in his realm. When the pharoah died, the people believed that he/she became a god. They had the highest quality mummification process and tombs created for them, overflowing with gifts to carry them to the afterlife.


Osiris- king; was murdered by Set and became king of underworld and judge of the deadIsis- ultimate godess; started mummification; goddess of fertilityHorus- King after Osiris; pharaohs were thought of to be the incarnated Horus; worshiped as god of light and skyThoth- god of wisdom, writing, and magic; scribe of the underworld; Book of ThothRa- sun god and one of the most important; assosiated with pyramids and resurection of pharaohsSet- god of desert and storms; murderer of OsirisBastet- goddess of cats; maternal figure; ferocious when neededWadjet- royal sovereignty over Egypt; protecter of the living Horus or pharaohsSekhmet- goddess of war, disease, and health Anubis- mummification and embalment, custodian of the dead

Pharaoh: a title of an ancient Egyptian kingTheocracy: a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authoritiesDynasty: a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or groupPolytheistic: the doctorine that there is more than one god or many gods


The Nile:Government and Culture

Main Egyptian Gods





The Egyptians believed that the body was made up of many parts: the ba (soul), the ka (life force), and the aj (divine inspiration). For survival in the afterlife, the ka needed the corpse to saty intact. Thus, the mummification process was created. (see video) Through the ritual of opening the mouth, the mummy was 'reanimated'. There were several gifts and offerings placed in the tomb to help the deceased live comfortably in the after life. Then, the tomb was sealed so they may rest in peace. After burial, the deceased person began a long journey in the underworld. They were led by Anubis (see list of gods) to the Hall of Two Truths. The deceased person's heart would be weighed against a feather. If the heart was heavier than the feather, they would be devourd by a monster called Amit. Otherwise, they could carry on to the kingdom. However, they haf to travel on a long journey on the boat of Ra to cross a lake of fire, guarded by many creatures. The only help they had were the things left in their tomb. After their journey had ended, they could enter the Kingdom of Osiris and attain IARU, or psradise.


In the Dynastic Era (2950 B.C.), royal tombs were carved into gargantuan rocks and covered with flat roofed structure called "mastabas." The first and oldest stone pyramid was built around 2630 B.C. under King Djoser. Being ambitious and wanting something that everyone will remember him for, he demanded the building the pyramid. During his twenty year reign, his subjects built only the first six stepped layers. It reached a total of 204 feet, the tallest building of its time. They surrounded it with courtyards, temples, and shrines where the dead king could live happily in his afterlife.After Djoser, pyramids became the place for people to be laid to rest. The first smooth stone pyramid was built under the rule of King Sneferu (2613-2589 B.C.). The outside was made of limestone.The most celebrated pyramids are the Pyramids of Giza. They settle on the outskirts of modern-day Cairo, located on a plateau on the west bank of the Nile. The Great Pyramid's structure is the only part left of the pyramid and built for King Khufu (2589- 2566 B.C.). The bottom base is 755.75 feet and the original height was 481.4 feet, making it the largest pyramid in the world. Surrounding the bottom are four smaller pyramids were built for his three queens and his mother. It was surrounded by mastabas and courtyards.


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