The Nervous system

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by WhiffleBallTony
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Biology
Grade:
10

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The Nervous system

The Nervous System

The nervous systemThe nervous system is made up of two different parts, the central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral system which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. the central nervous system is protected by bone and cushioned from injury by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral system is what connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. There are 3 main parts of the peripheral system. One of those systems are the autonomic nervous system, which controls the automatic functions of the body: the heart, smooth muscle (organs) and glands. It is divided into the “fight-or-flight” system and the “resting and digesting" system. The second part is the somatic nervous system, which allows us to consciously or voluntarily control our skeletal muscles. The somatic system contains 12 cranial nerves and 31 spinal nerves. The third main system is the nerves, which are made up of special cells called neurons. Neurons are comprised of a dendrite, a cell body and an axon. Impulses travel to the dendrite into the cell body and then onto the axon.

The NeuronThe neuron is the messenger of the nervous system. These messages are transmitted via electrical impulses. The neuron is comprised of a nerve cell and its adjoining processes called an axon and dendrites. Electrical impulses enter the neuron via the dendrites and leave via the axon. The space between the axon of one cell and the dendrites of another is called a synapse. Specialised chemicals called neurotransmitters help conduct impulses through the synapse onto the next cell.

The PartsThe Central Nervous System is the most important part of nervous system. It consists of three things; the brain, the brain stem, and the spinal cord. The brain is the data base of the body, which consists of the cerebrum, which helps regulate higher functions such as thought, and cerebellum, which controls coordination. The brain stem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla, and controls lower level functioning such as respiration and digestion. The spinal cord is the conduit that connects the brain with the bodies main receptors.

PNSthe peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The Autonomic Branch is the reason your organs work, it controls involuntary responses such as your heart beating. There are two other branches that fall under this category, those are the sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sypathetic branch controls the fight or flight impulse and maintains homeostasis. Parasympathetic controls things like the rest and digest, and feed and breed impulses The Somatic Branch is associated with the muscles to move the body voluntarily.

Nerve ImpulseA nerve impulse is an electrical signal that travels along an axon. There is an electrical difference between the inside of the axon and its surroundings, like a tiny battery. When the nerve is activated, there is a sudden change in the voltage across the wall of the axon, caused by the movement of ions in and out of the neuron. This triggers a wave of electrical activity that passes from the cell body along the length of the axon to the synapse.


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