The Nervous System

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by TiaSanti
Last updated 6 years ago

Human Anatomy

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The Nervous System

A neuron is a cell that transfers stimuli to other cells. Dendrites: Receive inputAxon: Conducts impulses away from the cell body.Axon Hillock: An enlarged region where an axon attqaches to the cell body. Synaptic Terminal: Neurotransmitters are made and relased from synaptic terminalsSynapse: The junction between the synaptic terminal and another cell

The basic function of the nervous system is to coordinate the body's activities. It has 3 major functions including a sensory function, and interpretative function and a motor function. Information is brought in and processed and interpreted by the brain. The structure of the nervous system is divided into 2 major parts. The Central Nervous System made up of the brain and spinal cord. The Peripheral System connects the CNS to the rest of the body.

The Nervous System

Basic Structure/Function


Central Nervous System, CNS

The CNS is made up of the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. These help to process data and provide and output to the body. The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the forebrain and cerebrum while the spinal cord extends from the brain stem through the spine. it has nerves branching off to different parts of the body to carry out various bodily functions.Control centers of the brain include the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and is the main source of motor and sensory functions. It also controls consciousness, thought, reason, emotion, and memory. The cerebellum is towards the back of the brain. It lies between the brainstem and the cerebrum. It controls sensory perception, motor output, balance and posture.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System is the other branch. This is often considered the "rest and digest" system. This is a "more slowly activated dampening system".

The Sympathetic Nervous System is a branch off of the Autonomic Nervous Sytem. It is often considered the "fight or flight system. This is a "quick response mobilizing system".

The PNS is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. Its main function is to connect the CNA to the rest of the body. (Limbs, organs, etc.). The PNS is also diveded into the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nercous System.

Peripheral Nervous System, PNS

Somatic Nervous System: This system is associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of the body movements. It consists of 3 major parts: Spinal nerves, Cranial Nerves, and Association Nerves. This is the voluntary movement section.

Autonomic Nervous System: This system is associated with the functions of the internal organs. It is a body system that acts largely unconsciously. Regulates heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate and pupillary response. These functions are involuntary.

A sensory neuron carries the message from the receptor to the central nervous system. A motor neuron then carries the message from the Central Nervous System to an effector, which is an organ or a cell that acts in response to a stimulus.

A nerve impulse is an electrical signal that travels along an axon. When the nerve is activated, there is a sudden change in the voltage across the wall of the axon, cuased by the movement of ions in and out of the neuron. This then triggers a wave of electrical activity that passes from the cell body along the length of the axon to the synapse.

Nerve Impulses

Reflex Arc


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