The Integumentary System

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by abigaildevlin
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Human Anatomy

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The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System

Citations: Anatomy Textbook and YouTube Name: Abigail Devlin & Amanda Dewing Class: Anatomy 4

Decubitus Ulcers: (bedsores) skin injuries caused by an area of localized pressure that restricts blood flow to one or more areas of the bodyFirst Degree Burns: only affect the epidermal layer of the skin (most types are sunburns)Second Degree Burns: involve damage to both the epidermis and the upper portion of the underlying dermisThird Degree Burns: destroys the entire thickness of the skinHuman Papillomavirus (HPV): common warts; plantar warts are on the soles of the foot, grow inward, and are very painfulAthlete's Foot: (Tinea Pedis) most common; characterized by cracked, flaky skin between the toes or on the side of the footRingworm: (Tinea Corporis) it is not a worm but a rash; caused by prolonged sweating and poor hygiene; it is highly contagious and common in children; spread through direct contactPleurisy: inflammation of the pleura, the membrane that lines the thoriac cavity lungsPeritonitis: an inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominol organsPsoriasis: a common skin disorder that involves redness and irritation; characterized by regions of thick, red skin with flaky, silver-white patches called scales that itch, burn, crack, and sometimes bleedMalignant Melanoma: cancer of the melanocytes

Injuries and Disorders of the Skin

Keratin: tough protein, also found in hair and nails, to help protect the skin against damage from harmful chemicalsMelanocytes produce Melanin: a pigment that protects the body against the harmful effects of ultraviolet ray damage from sunlightEpidermis: outer layer of the skin; it has 5 layers - the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and the stratum basaleKeratinocytes: within the epidermis and produces keratin cellsDermis: it is called the "true skin"; a dense fiberous connective tissue composed of collagen and elastic fibers; outer layer - papillary layer and inner layer - reticular layerHypodermis: serves as a storage repository for fatSudoriferous (sweat) Glands: distrubuted in the dermis over the entire body with larger concentrations under the arms, on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, and on the foreheadSebaceous Glands: located all over the body except for the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; produces an oily substance called sebum; most of the glands empty into hair follicles, though some secrete directly into the skin; sebum helps to keep skin and hair soft and also contains chemicals to kill bacteria

Fun Facts: The skin is the largest organ system AND the largest organ.The surface area of the skin is 1-2 meters long and its weighs 12-15% of body weight. Each person has 2-3 million sweat glands."Integumentary" comes from the Latin word integumentum which means "covering." As melanin granules are pushed out into the neighboring skin cells, the result is tanning!

Protection: Keratin in the skin protects against injury and mechanical damage, melanocytes produce melanin to protect against UV damage, acidic sweat protects against bacterial infectionsWater Barrier: Keratin and other oils reduce the amount of water loss through evaportation and form a barrier against water infusionTemp. Regulation: Helps to reserve heat and produces sweat to cool the body down once it gets too hotVitamin D: sunlight converts cholesterol molecules to vitamin DWaste Elimination: urea and uric acid are eloiminated in sweatSensory Perception: reseptor cells transmit information about touch, pressure, pain, and temp to the nervous system

Key Vocabulary

Functions

Epidermis

Dermis

Subcutaneous Layer

The epidermis is the top layer of skin that communicates with the rest of the nervous system when it senses pain or change in temperature. This layer contains melanin which is responsible for the human skin color. The epidermis has 5 layers of tissue that include stratum corneun, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, and basale.The outermost layer, the stratum coreneum, is relatively waterproof to prevent water from soaking into the body while bathing. This layer also has fingerprints which differ for each person.

The dermis is located under the epidermis and has a rich supply of blood vessels. The blood vessels constrict to help to retain body heat. The top layer is called the papillary layer of the dermis and under that is the reticular layer of the dermis. This layer of skin is also a pain receptor which means that it is directly related to the nervous system. Specialize white blood cells, which are called phagocytes, ingest all of the foreign material like bacteria and dead cells. The reticular layer includes blood and lymphatic vessels, sweat and oil glands, involuntary muscles, hair follicles and nerve endings

This layer contains fatty tissue. The fat is important for padding the interior of the body. This fat is also a source of energy for the body making this layer very important.

Getting Under the Skin

This system connects with the nervous system through the sweat glands, the cardiovascular system through the blood vessels in the dermis, and the immune system by the contraction of diseases in the open wounds of the skin.


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