The five senses

by bixbyxander
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The five senses

first I will tell and show you about sight.

The images we see are made up of light reflected from the objects we look at. This light enters the eye through the cornea, which acts like a window at the front of the eye. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the pupil, which is surrounded by the iris – the coloured part of the eye.

Sound waves enter the outer ear and travel through a narrow passageway called the ear canal, which leads to the eardrum.The eardrum vibrates from the incoming sound waves and sends these vibrations to three tiny bones in the middle ear. These bones are called the malleus, incus, and stapes.The bones in the middle ear amplify, or increase, the sound vibrations and send them to the cochlea, a snail-shaped structure filled with fluid, in the inner ear. An elastic partition runs from the beginning to the end of the cochlea, splitting it into an upper and lower part. This partition is called the basilar membrane because it serves as the base, or ground floor, on which key hearing structures sit.

Next I will tell and show you about how you hear

And your nose...

All around us, things like coffee or gasoline emit tiny molecules that can enter our olfactory system in two ways: either through our nostrils or the back of the throat (mostly everything emits molecules, from perfume to bread). We’re mainly familiar with smelling through our nostrils, although eating food which releases molecules into the back of the throat can also cause us to smell.Once inside your nostrils, these air molecules land on the olfactory epithelium — a tissue covered in mucus that lines the nasal cavity. The epithelium contains millions of olfactory receptors, or neurons that are capable of binding with specific odor molecules. These are the “locks and keys” of the olfactory system, which help identify certain smells. An odor molecule from a cup of coffee floating up into your nose will find and bind to an olfactory receptor that’s specifically designed to identify that molecule. This notion was uncovered by Richard Axel and Linda Buck, who won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery.

And how you taste!!!

Touch receptors are small in size, but they collect very accurate information when touched. They may sense pain, temperature, pressure, friction, or stretch. Unique receptors respond to each kind of information. This helps provide the body with a full picture of what is touching the skin.

And finally, touch.

The sense of touch is located in the skin, which is composed of three layers: the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. Different types of sensory receptors, varying in size, shape, number, and distribution within the skin, are responsible for relaying information about pressure, temperature, and pain. The largest touch sensor, the Pacinian corpuscle, is located in the hypodermis, the innermost thick fatty layer of skin, which responds to vibration. Free nerve endings—neurons that originate in the spinal cord, enter and remain in the skin—transmit information about temperature and pain from their location at the bottom of the epidermis. Hair receptors in the dermis, which are wrapped around each follicle, respond to the pressure produced when the hairs are bent.



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