The Elizabethan Time Period

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Subject:
European history
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The Elizabethan Time Period

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)Edward Alleyn (1566-1626)Henry Condell (1568-1627)Richard Burbage (1567-1619)John Hemmings (1566-1630)Robert Armin (1563-1615)- Only men were allowed to act in theatres until 1660.- Young boys took female roles.- Actors became wealthy men.- Acting was a full-time job.- They didn’t have to audition for role after role. Once hired, they became members of an acting troupe with a role to play nearly every day.

Valeriya Svichkar, Teri Wang, Sannie Chie

The Elizabethan Time Period

-Shakespeare was famous for being an actor and writing plays.-Although he attended a local school, he did not pursue university-He was born April 23rd, 1564 and died exactly 52 years later.-He had 8 siblings, 3 of whom died at an early age.-At age 18, he was married to Anne Hathaway-With his wife, he had two daughters and a son who died early in his childhood-He wrote 37 plays in his lifetime-From 1578-1582, it was unknown where he went, these are referred to as the 'Lost Years'.-As of now, Shakespeares' works are the most quoted, after the Bible

The two main religions were Roman and Protestant Catholic.Favoured religion was decided by Monarchs.Not being part of that religion can lead to danger.Elizabethan Catholic believed that the Bible and church services should be in Latin as it is the original language.Elizabethan Protestant believed that the Bible and church services should be in the language of the people.Roman Catholics were unable to tolerate the Protestants even when the Protestants were the reigning religion during the time of Queen Elizabeth I. Many scientific theories were deemed improbable by the Church as it went against the Bible.

Facored sports for Elizabethan men was hunting, archery, skittles, wrestling and many more.The people who were rich could afford dogs and hawks for hunting.They went to banquest, festivals,. Watched plays, jousts and animal sports such as cock fighting and played card games.Elizabethan middle and upper class women were expected to learn an instrument though they were not allowed to preform publicly.The women would spend time embroidering, men would never do that because it was considered to be a woman's thing.Hunting was something only the rich could do. It cost money for equipment and dogs or hawks. If you were a skilled hunter, it meant that you were skilled in the art of tracking. There were different types of hunts, some suitable for both men and women.

The Globe was the theatre William Shakespeare held his plays.Theatres were mainly made of timber and stone up to 100 feet in diameter. They were based on Greek and Roman structures.They were separated into three parts: The pit, the yard and the Galleries, the pit being the cheapest (1 penny).There was no heating whatsoever within the theatres and fights would often break out in the pit.Other famous companies were: the Rose Theatre, Newington Butts, Swan Theatre, Curtain theatre and many more.

* Only males of the Upper and Middle Classes went to school. * A girl's education is accomplished at home, although it usually includes reading and arithmetic.* Noble children get their education at home, from private tutors. * Students had their education beaten into them.* The school day begins at 7:00am in winter or 6:00am in summer. They work till about 9:00 when they are permitted breakfasts, then they work till 11:00. Lunch is from 11:00 to 1:00. The school day ends at 5:00 or 5:30pm.* Elementary school, called petty school, taught how to read and write in English and do sums. The main purpose was to get you into a grammar school. The petty school is often run by a young wife who teaches the local children in her home for a small fee.* High school, called grammar school mainly taught Latin grammar. Any history, literature, or drama is mainly a vehicle for illustrating the grammar. The main purpose was to get you into university.* University mainly taught courses in Latin, even after the Reformation. Music, modern languages, and science are irrelevant.* The seven liberal arts studied in medieval and Renaissance universities were grouped into two disciplines: the "trivium" (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and the "quadrivium" (astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, and music).

•The Black Death or The Plague killed 25 million people, which is about one-third of the population of Europe. The infamous disease came from Asia and didn’t completely disappear until the 17th century.•Other infectious diseases included influenza, measles, smallpox and syphilis.•The methods used during the early Elizabethan time period to diagnose and treat diseases were ineffective. A few of the attempts at treating diseases included superstitious rites and magic.•Edward Anthony Jenner, an English doctor and scientist, made the first vaccination in 1798, and saved the lives of people infected with small pox.

- During the Renaissance, new discoveries about the human body began the study of anatomy and physiology.- Vesalius (1514-1564) gave to the world the first careful description of the human body based on actual dissection. He was thus the founder of human anatomy.-Harvey (1578-1657) announced the discovery of the circulation of the blood, after observing living animals. He thereby founded human physiology.

-Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Vesalius, Harvey, and other famous scientists built up the scientific method.- The new scientific method rested on observation and experiment.- As Lord Bacon, one of Shakespeare's contemporaries and a severe critic of the old scholasticism, declared, "All depends on keeping the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of nature, and so receiving their images simply as they are, for God forbid that we should give out a dream of our own imagination for a pattern of the world."

-There were six ranks. From highest to lowest it was, monarchary, then nobility, the gentry as third, merchants fourth, yeomanry as fifth and laborers as the lowest.-The common age for marriage for women was 13. For men it was many years to decades older.-Within the household, women were in charge of household chores such as water supplying, sewing, and cooking. -The men were in charge of making money and hunting.-Women were considered below men and could be controlled by male members of their family. No women would inherit their fathers title unless they were royalty. Even if you were royalty you could not decide your own fate.-Only the children of nobility or rich were able to provide their children with an education. -Because infant mortality was high, the children that managed to survive were cherished greatly. -The role of women is very different today. Today, women are allowed to do everything men are allowed to. Man and woman are considered equal.

Astronomy.- Astronomy was a very important subject during the Renaissance for scientists in Europe.- Copernicus (1473-1543) discovered the earth turns upon its own axis, and, together with the planets, revolves around the sun. He was not the first and only scientist with this theory, however he was the first to give reasons for such a belief. Theologians disagreed because they thought that it contradicted many statements in the Bible.- Galileo (1564-1642) made one of the first telescopes. He found the sun moving on its axis, Venus showing phases according to her position in relation to the sun, Jupiter accompanied by revolving moons, and the Milky Way composed of a multitude of separate stars. Galileo rightly believed that these discoveries confirmed the theory of Copernicus.- Kepler (1571-1630) worked out the mathematical laws which govern the movements of the planets. He made it clear that the planets revolve around sun in elliptical instead of circular orbits. Kepler's investigations afterwards led to the discovery of the principle of gravitation.

* Upper Class Fashion- rich, sumptuous materials and elegant styles.* Lower Class Fashion- used basic materials.* Women- gowns, hats, corsets, underwear, collars, ruffs and shoes* Men- doublets, breeches, underwear, collars, ruffs, hats and shoes* Elizabethans clothing and items of apparel were dictated by the Elizabethan Sumptuary Clothing Laws which governed the style and materials worn. The penalties for violating Sumptuary Laws could be fines, the loss of property, title and even life. The Elizabethan Sumptuary Laws were irrelevant to wealth, but rather to provide information about the status, and social standing of someone. The Laws dictated the colours and material each class was allowed to wear, which also showed the importance and significance of costumes used in the Elizabethan theatres.

BibliographyAlchin, L.K. "Religion in Elizabethan England." Religion in Elizabethan England. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. ."Elizabethan Era." The Lost Colony. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014. ."Elizabethan Era." ELIZABETHAN ERA. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. .http://elizabethan.org/compendium/art/queen_hunting.jpghttp://www.costumesupercenter.com/images/SEO/resources/globe.jpghttp://www.presseurop.eu/files/images/article/catholics-vs-protestants.jpg?1347014963"A History Of Medicine." Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Education in the Elizabethan Era." Life in Elizabethan England 54:. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Elizabethan Clothing." ELIZABETHAN CLOTHING. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Elizabethan Inventions." Elizabethan Inventions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Elizabethan Science and Technology." Elizabethan Science and Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Four Humors - And there's the humor of it: Shakespeare and the four humors." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 19 Sept. 2013. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Internet Shakespeare Editions." The universities. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Renaissance Scientists and their Contributions." YouTube. YouTube, 9 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)"Government Page." Government Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. ."History of the Monarchy > The Tudors > Elizabeth I." History of the Monarchy > The Tudors > Elizabeth I. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2014. ."King James I." King James I. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2014. ."Renaissance." History: for Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. ."Shakespeare's Biography." Shakespeare Resource Center -. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. ."Start creating, sharing & exploring great visuals today!." William Shakespeare. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. ."The Renaissance (1350–1550) for AP European History." Education.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. ."The Renaissance Period." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. ."William Shakespeare's Contribution to the Renaissance - William Shakespeare." William Shakespeare. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. ."Government Page." Government Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.st.cr.k12.ia.us/Renaissance/government.htm>.

SHAKESPEARE, THE MAN

- The four bodily humours were part of Shakespearean cosmology, inherited from the ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle, Hippocrates, and Galen.- Organized around the four elements of earth, water, air, and fire; the four qualities of cold, hot, moist, and dry; and the four humours.- These physical qualities determined the behavior of all created things including the human body.- In the human body, the interaction of the four humours explained differences of age, gender, emotions, and disposition. - The influence of the humours changed with the seasons and times of day and with the human life span. Heat stimulated action, cold depressed it.

-In England, the government was slowly changing from a monarchy to a republic, however royals were still in power.-Queen Elizabeth's rule was when the arts flourished the most, this is the time when Shakespeare wrote his plays-Queen Elizabeth was disliked by many of the citizens because even though she allowed all religions to be practiced freely, she was a Protestant in a country full of Roman Catholics.-The citizens wanted Mary Queen of Scots to rule because of her Catholic belief.-After being imprisioned for 19 years, Mary Queen of Scots was ordered to die by Queen Elizabeth-When Elizabeth I had died, the throne was inheirited by James I, son of Mary-James believed in divine right and wanted absolute monarchy

-The renaissance was a time period that happened during 1400-1600 C.E.-It was a revial of the arts and the start of humanism.-This event began because of the Roman culture in Italy and the rich were more willing to support artists and geniuses.-Humanism is the philosophy that all people should try to be educated and have knowledge of art, literature, science.-Art flourished in new ways, paintings and sculptures began to show realism and emotion.-Because of this time period, Shakespeare was able to bring new styles of theatre to England.-Due to the new interest to learn, many new discoveries were made in science.-During the renaissance, famous works of art such as the Mona Lisa by Leonardo di Vinci were created

Theatre

Society

Pastimes, Sports, and Entertainment.

The Scientific Method

Human Anatomy/Physiology

Medicine and Diseases

Astronomy

Religion

Education

Actors/Famous People

Attire

The Four Humours

Government

Renaissance


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