The Effect of Bedroom Access to Electronics on the Sleep of Children and Adolescents

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by CourtneyKennsion
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The Effect of Bedroom Access to Electronics on the Sleep of Children and Adolescents

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (PNPs) must be made aware of the high prevalence of electronic media devices in children and adolescents’ bedrooms (Rideout et al., 2010), as well as the negative impact that these devices have on sleep (Adachi-Mejia et al., 2014; Arora et al., 2014; Chaput et al., 2014). Additionally, efforts must be made to enquire about patient sleep habits and the extent of electronic media device use during well patient visits in order to provide anticipatory guidance and assess for potential problems. PNPs should also ask about sleep and electronic media device use during acute visits pertaining to obesity, poor school performance, and depression in order to establish if poor sleep associated with electronic media device use may be at the root of the problem (Lee et al., 2004). PNPs will be challenged to stay abreast of the advancement of electronic media devices in order to effectively communicate with children and adolescents regarding how these devices may negatively impact their sleep and their health.

SEARCH METHOD: To identify relevant research for this review a literature search was performed using the CINAHL and Google Scholar databases using a variety of search terms such as “screen time AND sleep”; “screen time AND disordered sleep AND adolescents”; and “screen time AND sleep hygiene AND adolescents”. Pertinent articles were also identified via reference lists of papers found through the database searches. The articles selected for this review were limited to original research that examined the use of one or more screen technologies prior to sleep and the resulting sleep quality . Research was included if peer reviewed, available in the English language, and within ten years old.

CONCLUSIONS:The importance of adequate sleep for children and adolescents cannot be overstated as the evidence points to many negative outcomes within these populations when adequate sleep is not achieved. Although a direct causation between electronic media devices in the bedroom and shortened sleep durations in children and adolescents has not yet been established, it has been made clear that electronic devices in the bedroom do not contribute to healthy sleep habits in these populations.

Effects of Inadequate Sleep in Children (Less Than 8 Hours a Night):•Irritability•Hyperactivity•Disruptiveness•Impulsivity

Effects of Inadequate Sleep in Adolescents (Less Than 8 Hours a Night):•Poor concentration•Sleepiness•Depression•Impaired driving

EVIDENCE BASED STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING SLEEP IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS:1. Reduce dose-exposure to electronic media devices (i.e. televisions, computers, videogames, music devices, and cell phones) prior to bedtime by discontinuing use of electronic media at least one hour prior to sleep (Gamble et al., 2014).2. Do not keep electronic media devices in the bedroom; if electronic media devices cannot be totally excluded from the bedroom, limit the number to only one device (Chaput et al., 2014).3. Do not use electronic devices in bed; if electronic devices must be used in bed, limit use to passive activities such as television or music devices while avoiding use of interactive media devices such as cell phones, video games, and internet (Gradisar et al., 2013).4. Do not keep cellular phones at the bedside;if a cellular phone must be kept at the bedside turn off the ringer prior to sleep and do not use it after lights-out (Adachi-Mejia et al., 2014).

INTERPROFESSIONAL PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:Poor sleep hygiene related to bedtime electronic media device use is not a problem reserved solely for healthcare providers. Teachers should also be made aware of this problem so they know to observe students with new-onset behavioral/attention issues for signs of sleep deprivation such as nodding off, or accidental injury (Beebe, 2011). Additionally, pediatric mental health care providers should be made aware of this problem so they know to assess for bedtime electronic media device use prior to developing a treatment plan when treating patients for sleep disorders and depression (Beebe, 2011). A national sleep campaign on this topic would not only increase awareness of this problem within the general population, but would increase the awareness of healthcare providers, mental health providers, and educators as well (Colten & Altevogt, 2006).

PURPOSE:To determine whether children and adolescents that have one or more electronic media devices (including televisions, cellular phones, computers, and video games) in their bedrooms obtain shorter periods of night-time sleep than those children and adolescents that do not have electronic media devices in their bedrooms.

ReferencesAdachi-Mejia, A., Edwards, P., Gilbert-Diamond, D., Greenough, G., & Olson, A. (2014). TXT me I’m only sleeping: Adolescents with mobile phones in their bedroom. Family Community Health, 37(4), 252-257.Arora, T., Broglia, E., Thomas, G. N., & Taheri, S. (2014). Associations between specific technologies and adolescent sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias.Sleep Medicine, 15, 240-247. Beebe, D. (2011). Cognitive, behavioral, and functional consequences of inadequate sleep in children and adolescents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(3), 649-665Chaput, J. P., Leduc, G., Boyer, C., Belanger, P., Leblanc, A., Borghese, M., & Tremblay, M. (2014). Electronic screens in children’s bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: Do the number and type of electronic devices matter? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 105(4), e273-e279.Colten, H., & Altevogt, B. (2006). Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: An unmet public health problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Gamble, A., D’Rozario, A., Bartlett, D., Williams, S., Bin, Y., S., Grunstein, R., & Marshall, N. (2014). Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: Results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey.PLoS ONE, 9(11), e111700.Gradisar, M., Wolfson, A., Harvey, A., Hale, L., Rosenberg, R., & Czeisler, C. (2013). The sleep and technology use of Americans: Findings from the National Sleep Foundation’s 2011 Sleep in America Poll.Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9(12), 1291-1299. Lee, K., Landis, C., Chasens, E., Dowling, G., Merritt, S., Parker, K., Redeker, N., Richards, K., Rogers, A., Shaver, J., Umlauf, M., & Weaver, T. (2004). Sleep and chronobiology: Recommendations for nursing education.Nursing Outlook, 52(3), 126-133. Rideout, V., Foehr, U., & Roberts, D. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds [Kaiser Family Foundations Study No. 8010]. Retrieved from http://kff.org/other/poll-finding/report-generation-m2-media-in-the-lives/

Screens in the Bedroom: The Effect of Bedroom Access to Electronic Media Devices on the Sleep Duration of Children and Adolescents


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