The Creek Indians 1st Hour

by MorrisFA
Last updated 7 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
American History
Grade:
9

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The Creek Indians 1st Hour

The Significant Leaders Of The CreekChief McIntosh William McIntosh was a leader of the Creek Nation from Coweta. The mixed-blood son of a Scottish trader and Creek mother, McIntosh had been called on frequently to deal with the settlers in the area. Over the years the violence had been decreasing and the Creek Indians aligned with McIntosh were viewed as "friendly". Repeated attacks by the Red Sticks and whites lead to open warfare on the frontier of the Creek Nation. With emotions aroused by the Shawnee warrior Tecumseh, the Red Sticks sought to avenge an surprise attack on a village with an attack on Fort Mims near the mouth of the Alabama River in August, 1813. While the numbers engaged are estimates, and the estimates vary widely, according to Benjamin W. Griffith in McIntosh and Weatherford, the Creek numbered 700 men against 340 mostly irregular soldiers. The Creek breached the exterior wall, quickly disposed of the soldiers and began killing civilians. Lurid details of the battle reached Georgia and Tennessee. A group of about 5,000 volunteers (mostly farmers and miners from Tennessee) led by General Andrew Jackson were joined by both Creek and Cherokee forces in an attempt to defeat the Red Sticks. Troops under Jackson's command avenged the deaths at Fort Mims on a number of occasions, killing the women and children of the Creek faction. After defeating the Red Sticks, Jackson, a notorious land speculator, forced the entire Creek Nation to cede one-third of its land to the United States on very favorable terms. By 1820 the removal of the Creek Nation had become a major platform for the Democratic Party in Georgia. Elected in 1823, Governor George Troup saw the Creek as a serious problem. As the Creeks began to assimilate American culture, they posed a threat in that men moving west from the coast might have a harder time of disposing of the Indians. Troup felt the Indians should be moved to the Western Territory of the Louisiana Purchase, an idea proposed by Thomas Jefferson in 1803. Chief McIntosh, Gov. Troup's first cousin, agreed to cede all Lower Creek land to Georgia in the Treaty of Indian Springs in 1825. He had been manipulated by both the federal and state governments to sign the treaty. McIntosh also had no clear mandate from his people. After signing the treaty, and prior to the removal, McIntosh and several other leaders were murdered by angry members of the tribe. The Treaty of Indian Springs was ratified in the U.S. Congress by a single vote. Chief McIntosh's home, Indian Springs, was Georgia's first State Park. Troup's stand on Indians gave him a razor-thin margin of victory against his bitter rival John Clark, another Democrat, in Georgia's first popular election in 1825. Flaunting his election victory, Troup began to force the Creek off their lands. In January, 1826, President John Quincy Adams negotiated the Treaty of Washington with the Creek. Although this treaty was nearly as corrupt as the Treaty of Indian Springs, Troup did not support it. He refused to honor it and quickly began to forcibly remove the Upper and Lower Creek from Georgia. When Adams threatened Troup with federal intervention, Troup called his bluff, prepared the state militia, and continued the removal. Adams backed down, figuring "..the Indians are not worth going to war over.". By 1827, the Creek were gone. The Native American land cessions to the state of Georgia ended with the Cherokee Trail of Tears." "Creek History." Creek History. Golden Ink, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2013.

The Creek Indians

Where The Creek Indians Were FromThe Creek Indians (or Muskogee) belong to the Muskhogean linguistic stock. The historical Creek, a union known as the Creek Confederacy was made out of the remains of the several separate tribes that occupied Georgia and Alabama in the American Colonial Period. It is believed that the Creek culture began as a way to guard against other larger conquering Indian tribes of the region. The Confederacy was in constant flux, its numbers and land possessions ever-changing as small bands joined and withdrew from the alliance. "Creek Indian." Creek Indian. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2013.

When the Lousianne territory was purchased it was to reach there goal to manifest destiny, but in order to reach the goal they would have to somehow clear the lands of native people for more white settlers to go west. As they tried 3 different steps to encourage the indans to move. First they tried to buy the land from the indians in exchange for twice as much land in Oklahoma which was useless to the United States at the time because they did not know about the nutrient rich soil that was already there. 2nd chance they offered schools for there youth, food supply for 1 year, and money to make improvements on the land but hardly no one would leave there home land. 3rd and final chance as president Andrew Jackson was in office he got congress to pass the indian removal act and sent a portion of his army to force the indians off there land and escorted by foot, wagon, or foot and steam boat and this time was mostly a success.David, Baird, and Goble Danney. The History Of Oklahoma. 2nd ed. Norman,Oklahoma: 58-108. Print.

Extra FactsThe purchase wasn't ratified until October of 1803, and in December 1803, France transferred authority over the region to the U.S.David, Baird, and Goble Danney. The History Of Oklahoma. 2nd ed. Norman,Oklahoma: 58-108. Print.

Prior To RemovalThe early Creeks enjoyed a comfortable living based on agriculture and hunting. Their homeland was fertile and game was plentiful. With the emergence of European contacts, the Creek hunting industry changed from a subsistence operation to a commercial enterprise. Trade expanded, and they began to sell not only venison, hides, and furs, but also honey, beeswax, hickory nut oil, and other produce. They also found markets for manufactured goods including baskets, pottery, and decorated deerskins.As white settlers continued to move into Creek territory, the Indians were crowded into progressively smaller land areas. This process began in 1733 when a cession of two million acres of Creek land was given to the new colony of Georgia so it could be sold to satisfy debts to British traders. In order to attract additional colonists, the land was sold at bargain prices.An extensive series of other land cessions followed, and eventually the Creek economy collapsed. "Countries and Their Cultures." Creeks. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2013


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