The Composition of Blood

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by crazyplanet
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Biology
Grade:
10

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The Composition of Blood

White Blood Cells

Red Blood Cells

Plasma

Platelets

Platelets releases chemicals to make blood clot when we cut ourselves

1. Lymphocytesproduces antibodies to destroy microorganisms 2. Phagocytesengulfs bacteria and other microorganisms that have infected our bodies

Red blood cells transport oxygen. It contains haemoglobin which loads oxygen to the lungs and unloads it in other parts of the body.

Haemoglobin in the red blood cells is an iron-containing protein that combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin when the concentration of oxygen in the surroundings is high. Oxyhaemoglobin turns back into haemoglobin and the red blood cell unloads its oxygen when the concentration of oxygen is low.

- No nucleus-> so more haemoglobin can be packed into each red blood cell for more oxygen to be transported- Biconcave shape allows efficient exchange of oxygen- High surface area to volume ratio for diffusion- Thinness of the cell gives a short diffusion distance to the centre of the cell- Very thin cell surface membranes which allow oxygen to diffuse

Lymphocytes make up approximately 25% of the white blood cells. Their function is to make antibodies that 'marks' on the pathogens. Some lymphocytes develop memory cells that make us immune to a disease, so if the same microorganism re-infects, the memory lymphocytes will start to reproduce and produce antibodies.

Phagocytes make up 70% of the while blood cells. They ingest microorganism by changing their shape and producing pseudopodia. The pseudopodia surround and enclose the microorganism in a vacuole. Then, the phagocyte secretes enzymes into the vacuole to break the microorganism down.

Platelets are fragments of large cells made in the bone marrow. If there is a cut, the air stimulates the platelets and damaged tissue to produce a chemical that causes fibrinogen to change into fibrin. The fibrin forms a network across the wound and traps the red blood cells. This forms a clot which prevents further loss of blood and entry of pathogens. It is further developed into a scab which protects the damaged tissue while new skin grows.

Plasmas:-carries the blood cells around the body- carries dissolved nutrients, hormones, carbon dioxide and urea- distributes heat around the body

Plasma is made up of 91.5% of water which allows the blood to flow freely in the vessels.

It acts as a messenger to deliever the particles around the body since the plasma includes solid particles such as the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.


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