The Cold War

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by mariaimpastato
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
World History

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The Cold War

A. Post World War policies of the United States and the Soviet Union 1.Define: Cold War The Cold War was a state of tension and hostility without armed battle between the Soviet Union and their allies and the United States and their allies. The Cold War was a global issue.2.Why did wartime allies like the U.S. and Soviet Union become such bitter enemies at the conclusion of WWII? Wartime allies became such bitter enemies because they had very different goals for Eastern Europe after World War II.3.Explain why Joseph Stalin and Western powers had differing goals with regard to Eastern Europe.Joseph Stalin wanted to spread communism to Eastern Europe. Western Europe and the U.S. did not want communism to grow and believed Eastern Europe should be democratic.4.Why did Germany, the country that both the U.S. the Soviet worked so hard to defeat, become such a sore spot between the two superpowers at the war’s end? Germany was left without much government after the war, and the Soviet Union and the United States fought to influence Germany’s decision.

Map of Europe during the cold war

The Cold War

This Political Cartoon represents the atomic arms race between the USA and the USSR.

Europe was divided by an "Iron Curtain"

B. Soviet Expansion and Aggression 1.Explain why the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin demanded a buffer zone in Eastern Europe after WWII. Germany invaded Russia in World War I and again in 1941, and Joseph Stalin saw them as a threat. Stalin demanded a buffer zone between Russia and Germany to defend his country. 2.How did Stalin attempt to defend his extension of Soviet control into Eastern Europe? He wanted to be separate from Western democracies and have several countries dividing Russia from Western Europe; Europe was divided into the Eastern and Western blocs. The Eastern bloc was dominated by the Soviet Union and the communist state. The West was led by the United States under democracy. 3.Describe Stalin’s attempt to form an Iron Curtain across Europe. The Iron Curtain was an intangible division between the communist East and democratic West. It was a symbol of the Cold War in the West. Stalin wanted to spread communism and separate himself from Western democracies that had become his enemies.4.Explain how the Berlin Blockade increased tensions between the Soviet Union and United States. The U.S. wanted to stop the spread of communism and help Eastern Europe, but Stalin forbade the countries from accepting American help. Consequently, Germany became divided amongst the powers.5.Explain in detail how the western powers responded to the Berlin Blockade. The Western powers created a 24 hour airlift and provided West Berliners with food and fuel.

D. Rival Alliances1.How did the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) attempt to counter Soviet aggression? The United States, Canada, and nine Western European countries formed a military alliance, NATO. They pledged to help each other if one of them was attacked. 2.How did the Soviets respond to U.S. collective security? The Soviet Union and its seven satellites formed their own alliance called the Warsaw Pact. The USSR used it to keep its satellites in order.3.To what extent was the atomic arms race a threat to international peace? Forty years were spent developing new weapons, both nuclear and conventional. Winston Churchill called the global balance of power a balance of terror.4.Describe how both countries attempted to end nuclear proliferation. In 1968, many nations signed the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty to stop the production of nuclear weapons.

C. United States Containment 1.Define: Containment Containment limited communism so that it did not spread to areas outside of Soviet control. It was the main idea of the Truman Doctrine.2.Explain how the Marshall Plan attempted to stop the spread of communism.The Marshall Plan was an immense aid package, set up by the United States that offered Eastern Europe economic assistance and food. This was to try to persuade them into practicing democracy.3.Explain how the Truman Doctrine attempted to stop the spread of communism. The Truman Doctrine was a policy that supported the free people who resisted attempts from outside pressure.4.Define: SatellitesSatellites are dependent states. The U.S. offered help to the Soviet Union’s depending states; The USSR forbade their satellites from taking U.S. aid.

E. Cold War Goes Global1.How did many nations try to avoid the superpower rivalry?To avoid superpower rivalries, many new nations remained nonaligned, which means they did not have allies on either side.2.Identify: Hot SpotsHot Spots were local conflicts fueled by the Cold War; Eastern bloc took one side and the Western bloc took the other. The hot spots were often located in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.3.Give a specific example of a “Hot Spot” and describe the outcome of the conflict.Communist leader, Mao Zedong won control in the mainland of China. This caused fear in the U.S. that the “red tide” would sweep around the world.4.What brought about the end of the Cold War? The Cold War ended suddenly, when the Soviet Union collapsed 1991.

The Iron Curtain was an imaginary border that seperated communist states from democratic.


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