The Brain

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by cnguyen6699
Last updated 6 years ago

Human Anatomy

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The Brain




The part of the brain involved with emotions is called the limbic system. It is located inside the cerebrum, interior to the cerebral cortex.The limbic system is made up of the thalamus, hypothalamus, the amygdala,and the hippocampus.Within the cerebral cortex of the cerebrum, the thalamus is responsible for directing messages from the spinal cord to the appropriate part of the brain.Below the thalamus, (hypo means below!) the hypothalamus is responsible for monitoring homeostasis of the body such as water content and temperature.The hypothalamus is a link between the nervous system and the endocrine system.




The brain is made up of 100 billion neurons and 900 billion glial cells.The brain's inner region is made up of white matter. The outer region is made up of gray matter.The brain is protected by bone, meninges, and a cushion of fluid.The three main structured parts of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.

The cerebrum functions to coordinate speech, memory, and conscious or voluntary muscle movements.The surface of the cerebrum is covered with folds/gyri, and creases/sulci.This is called the cerebral cortex.Memories are distributed throughout the cerebral cortex.Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex receive incoming information.Motor areas of the cerebral cortex control voluntary muscle movement.Association areas of the cerebral cortex coordinate complex activities such as speech, language, and memory.The Broca's and Wernicke's areas of the cerebrum are important association areas for Speech.




The cerebrum is divided into right and left hemispheres.Each half of the cerebrum is divided into four lobesThe front lobe of the cerebral cortex is called the frontal lobe.The top middle lobe of the cerebral cortex is called the parietal lobe.The back lobe of the cerebral cortex is called the occipital lobe.The bottom middle lobe of the cerebral cortex is called the temporal lobe.



The second main part of the brain, the cerebellum, coordinates muscle activities, balance.The third main part of the brain, the brain stem coordinates survival functions. Survival functions are breathing, heart rate, sleeping, and wakefulness.The brain stem is made up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.


Instruments have been invented to enable study of the brain.PET stands for positron-emission tomography. A positron is a tiny particle given off by a radioactive element when one of its protons becomes a neutron. It is a positive electron. FDG is a radioactive glucose commonly given to patients before a PET scan. Scans show areas of the body which have extraordinary amounts of metabolic activity (such as growth). These areas may be cancerous.When an area of the brain is used more blood rushes to that area--again there would be more metabolic activity. This allows studies to determine which portion of the brain is used during various activities.


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