[2015] Christina Papachristos (Mr. Belvedere's class): The Battles of Plains of Abraham

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Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
American History
Grade:
7

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[2015] Christina Papachristos (Mr. Belvedere's class): The Battles of Plains of Abraham

Battle Of The Plains Of Abraham

Battle Timeline

Armies

Leading up

Aftermath

Worries ForThe Future After the war ended, residents in Canada were concerned for their future in Canada. The First Nations made peace with the British but were worried that newcomers hungry for land would take over their territories. The Acadians were welcomed back into Nova Scotia but they feared for their native language and religion, because many English settlers arrived from the 13 colonies to the South. The habitants in Quebec were scared that what happened to the Acadians (chased from their homes) would happen to them. They also knew that things under the British rule would be different. So they wondered if they would be allowed to keep their language and religion. But the worries weren't just for the French.

Onward ToQuebecWith the fall of Louisbourg, the British saw the way was open to capture Quebec. Spring 1759 ~ Major General James Wolfe led a fleet up the St. Lawerence river. There were 200 ships, 9,000 soldiers, and 18,000 sailors. The ships streched for 150 kilometres down the St. Lawerence river!The battle for Quebec laster for 3 months. The French commander was Marquis De Montcalm. He had 16,000 troops, Odawa allies, and a strong fortress. He was ready to battle the British. A problem for the British came aong, if Wolfe could not succed his attack before winter, he would have to retreat. The ice would freeze over the St. Lawerence blocking off a way for the British ships.

Capturing LouisbourgLouisbourg gaurded the entrance to the St. Lawrence river which lead to the Quebec colony. The British needed to capture Louisbourg first to get into Quebec. June 1758 ~ A fleet of 160 British warships appeared off the Coast of Cape Breton. They began attacking the French fortress and blocked off the harbour. This meant that all French reinforcements could not reach Louisbourg. Reinforcements such as food, soldiers, and supplies were cut off. Seven weeks went by and the French were starving and the walls of Louisbourg were falling apart. The French surrendered and the British sucessfully captured Louisbourg.

Armies Involved The armies involved in the Battle of The Plains Of Abraham were the British, the French, and their Odawa allies.

1755~1758 The Brtish make their first move on attacking New France in 1755. Off of Newfoundland the British captured two French ships and wouldn't return them. War was declared. William Pitt (Britans Prime Minister) sent 50,000 troops to North America to capture Louisbourg and Quebec. In 1758, the British went after Louisbourg and successfully captured it.

1763+ In 1763, Britan and France signed a peace treaty that gave Britan possession of the majority of North America. This disappointed the First Nations. The British took over the fur trade after the war and they lost the trust of the First Nations people. The Bitish didn't understand that the way to gain the First Nations trust was by exchaging gifts.

1759~1762 In 1759, the British went on to capture Quebec. They made two attempts before Wolfe and his army sucessfuly captured Quebec. The Plains of Abraham was where the British attacked the Quebec fortress for the second time. 13,00 soldiers died including Wolfe and Montcalm. In 1760, the British went after Montreal where the French tryed to hold on. September 8th 1760 is when Britan captured Montreal and New France was officially theirs.

British Action The British was the army that was attacking New France. General James Wolfe led the British army against the French. Wolfe attacked the French fortress Louisbourg. It took 7 weeks for the French to surrender within its walls. When the British made the first attempt to attack Quebec, Montcalm locked himself inside his fortress on a hill. Wolfe faced a well defended fortress. He had a hard time getting his soldiers to get behind it and cut off its supplies. Montcalm had reinforcements coming in and the clock was ticking for Wolfe to make his move. He faced a lot of problems at this time. So Wolfe ordered an attack on the countryside which demolished villages. He wanted to bring the French out into an open battle but Montcalm wouldn't budge. Wolfe made a last attempt on Quebec and ordered his soldiers to scale the cliffs behind the French fortress. This area was called the Plains of Abraham. When they got to the top, a French sentry called out, "Who goes there?" and a British soldier replied in French, "Provisions from Montreal." No shots had been fired and the attack started with only quick blows to the head. 4,400 troups were behind Quebec by dawn. They started moving cannon and more soldiers up the cliff and into the Plains of Abraham. When the French army came out to fight back, the British just kept firing until the French retreated. 1,300 soldiers died that day including General Wolfe. But in the end, the attack was successful. The British captured Quebec a few days later. After the fall of Quebec, it was in ruins. There was no food and many soldiers died from dieseases. Spring 1760 ~ 18,000 British troops closed in on Montreal. The French surrendered and on September 8th 1760, Britan had captured all of New France.

French Action The French was the army that was defending New France. General Marquis Montcalm led the French army against the British. Montcalm surrendered to the British 7 weeks after their attack on Louisbourg started. The walls were crumbling and the French were weak. They had no choice. When the British came for Quebec on the first attempt, British Gerneral James Wolfe led a huge army of sailors and soilders blocking the St. Lawerence pathway to Quebec. Montacalm was smart and locked himself up in the Quebec fortress. He was safe within its walls and his army could still fire down at the enemy below. Reinforcements were coming from Montreal but it was unknown how far away they were. On the second British attempt, Montcalm had no choice but to march his troops out. He thought the longer he waited, the stronger the British would become. 10:00 next morning ~ The French and the Odawa allies went out against the British. Many French soldiers died in a rapid fire attack from Britan. The French retreated. In all, 1,300 soldiers died that day. Including General Marquis Montcalm. Quebec was handed over to Britan a couple days later. After the Fall of Quebec, the French tried to hold on at Montreal. Quebec was in shambles. There was no food and many people were dying from dieseases. The French wanted to make one last stand against Britan who were now closing in on Montreal. But Governor Vaudreuil knew they could not win. September 8th 1760 ~ Vaudreuil surrendered New France to the British. The war was over and the French no longer ruled North America.

The British also worried for the future. British officials were now governing a colony of 70,000 Canadiens. They spoke different languages, were a different religion, and were used to a different government and different laws. How could Britan trust that these Canadiens would be loyal to them? They also worried about how they could befriend the First Nations peoples that had fought against them in the war. The First Nations, who had their own perspective on the war, wanted to make their territories secure so they fought. The French had the majority of the First Nations siding with them while the British had the Haudenosaunee as allies. These certain tribes fought with either side because of their long history of trading with one another.1763 ~ When Britan and France signed the peace treaty, this dissapointed the First Nations because they were worried about outsiders arriving in their territories. Their land was at stake. And no one asked them to participate in the peace treaty.


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