The Art and Science of Teaching: Chp. 9

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The Art and Science of Teaching: Chp. 9

The Art & Science of Teaching Chapter 9: High Expectations for all Students

What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? This chapter addressed how teachers need to be aware of their expectations they have for high and low students. Teachers need to be aware of actions they can take to avoid treating low-expectancy students differently from the high-expectancy students. This is one of the most powerful hidden dynamics of teaching because it is typically an unconscious activity. This chapter focused on two areas: affective tone and quality of interactions with students. With these two ideas teachers can begin to purposefully change the way they interact with certain students.


Action Steps

Action 1: Identify your expectation level for students * become aware and think about who you have as low-expectancy students.Action 2: Identify differential treatment of low-expectancy students * examine and record how you treat these students.Action 3: Make sure low-expectancy students are valued and respected * change specific behaviors with these students and determine which ones work.Action 4: Ask questions of low-expectancy students * address every student and be purposeful with who you call on. Action 5: When low-expectancy students do not answer a question, stay with them * acknowledge what they know. Thank them responses. Provide ways to temporarily let students off the hook.

Research & Theory

1986 study, administered by Lenore Jacobson (principal) and Rosenthal, focused on a group of students called spurters. A spurter was a student who based upon an intelligent test given, was deemed to be a student whose academic performance should grow dramatically during the year. Teachers were told who these "spurters" were and at the end of the year they had out gained the 80% of students who had not been identified as "spurters". Studies also showed that the expectancy effect was greater the less a teacher knew about a student. This was proven with research that said in 1st, 2nd, and 7th grade students had higher expectancy effects. Things such as: cumulative folder, physical attractiveness, social class, and race all played a part in teacher expectations.

Studies show that this is the most influential differences in teacher treatment of high and low expectancy students. Research shows that with students who teachers believe to have low-cheers show the following interactions: wait less time to answer questions, hand the answers to them or call on someone else to answer, demand less from them, brief and less informative feedback on their responses, and pay less attention to them.

There are two teacher behaviors that communicate expectations to students, the first is affective tone. This refers to the extent to which the teacher establishes positive emotion in the classroom. Studies show that when working with high-expectancy students teachers tend to smile more, look students in the eye more, lean toward students more, and behave in a friendly manner. In comparison, when teachers work with low-expectancy students they tend to praise less frequently, seat students farther away, give less eye contact, and are overall less friendly.

Affective Tone

Quality of Interactions

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