The Approaches of Psychology

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by carlycolon
Last updated 3 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Psychology

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The Approaches of Psychology

psychoanalytic: -unconcious motivations influence our behavior. -Free Association: when a patient says everything that comes to mind and the psychologist listens and interprets their thoughts. still used by psyhcoanalists-Dream Anylasis: they believed that dreams were expressions of unconcious urges.

behavioral:-events in the enviornment (rewards/ punishments) influence our behavior. -How one thing is associated with another. How something triggers something else. Ex: ringing a bell before every meal and lets the dog know it's about to eat.

cognitive:-How we process, store and retrieve information influences our behavior and how it influences our thinking, language, problem solving, and crativity. -Behavior is a response to stimulus & influenced by a variety of mental processes (perceptions, memories, expectations)

humanistic:-Developed as a reaction to behavioral psychology. -Emphasises how each person is unique and has potential to develop fully. -Enviornment and other outisde forces serve as a background to our own internal growth.

biological:-Also known as behavioral neuroscience-The impact of biology on behavior.-

Psychoanalist: Studies how unconcious motives and conflicts determine human behavior, feelings and thoughts.Cognitivists: Focus on how we process, store, retrieve and use information and how it influences our thinking, language, problem solving and creativityPhsycobiologist: Studies how the brain, nervous system, hormones and genetics influence our behavior. Also, how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior.Behaviorists: Psychologists who analyze how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the enviorment.Humanistic psychologist: Believe that each person has freedom in directing his or her future and achieving personal growth.Sociocultural Psychologist: Cultural impacts of behavior, also studies the impact and integration of the immigrants, attitudes, beliefs and norms of the ethnic groups.

sociocultural:-Newest form of psychology-the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning.-how our knowledge and ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving are dependent on the culture we belong

Sigmund Frued: a physician who practiced in Vienna until 1938. Was more interestedin the unconcious mind. He believed that our conscious experiences are only the tip of the iceberg.

Ivan Pavlov: charted another new course for psychological investigation.

A humanist, such as Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May descrived human nature as evolving and self-directed.

Cognitive psychology has benefited from the contributions of people such as Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky and Leon Festinger.

Isreal Keyes: 2012 (US)The psychologist studying this would most likely be a behavioral psychologist. He murdered seven different people. Each kill gave him a thrill, he knew that every time he was going to feel this thrill which was why he continued to do this. Like the dog hearing the bell and knowing it was dinner time, it made him excited. He studied other serial killers and made his own plans so no one could say he copied their ideas. This would be a type of cognitive psychology because he was interpreting other peoples kills and it was influencing his behavior.

John B. Watson:Believed that psychology should concern itself with only observable facts of behavior. All behavior is the result of conditioning and occurs because of the stimulus in the enviornment.

B.F. Skinner:introduced the concept of reinforcement- a responce to behavior that increases the liklihood of the behavior being repeated. Wrote "Walden Two" where he wrote about his idea of a utopia.

The Approaches of Psychology


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