Swiss National Park

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by srck397nb
Last updated 5 years ago

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Science
Subject:
Environmental Studies

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Swiss National Park

It's a really "gneiss" national park

"Biosphere Reserves Directory - Switzerland - Parc Suisse." UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation, 4 Mar. 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . "Happy Birthday Swiss National Park." IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature, 5 Aug. 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . “The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.” International Union for Conservation of Nature, Mar. 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. Raaflaub, Christian. "Pioneer Nature Park Marks Centenary." SWI Swissinfo.ch. Swiss Broadcasting Corporation, 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . "Swiss National Park." Swiss National Park (Schweizerischer Nationalpark) - Grisons Attractions | PlanetWare. PlanetWare Inc., 2014. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . "Swiss National Parc." Home Page. Federal National Park Commission, 10 May 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. .

Found at 46° 40′N 10° 12′E,in Switzerland and bordering the Italian side of the Alps.

Swiss National Park

There are very few anthropogenic threats to the park, as it is granted the highest level of protection by the IUCN, with dogs prohibited and visitors only allowed to follow the paths. Nothing can be removed from the park.However, with some two-thirds of the park being covered in forest and large amounts of fallen trees around, fires are inevitable. The park works to put out any fires since letting them run their natural course would lead to complications with trying to reforest the areas destroyed. In 2013, a nearby electric water plant deposited large amounts of mud into the river, damaging the aquatic ecosystem and killing marine life.

Producers include cembra pines, Norway spruces, cowberry plants, alpine asters, larches, and mountain pines.

The park's geology includes rocks made of gneiss (the oldest type of rock in the area), dolomite, which is what the majority of the mountains in the area are made of, verrucano, amphibolite (often found with gneiss), cornieule (dolomite mixed disproportionally with the element gypsum), radiolorite, and allgau and coralline limestones. There are also 220-million-year-old dinosaur tracks that can be found at 2450m. Also within the park is the Fuorn pass in the mountains that connects Itlay and Switzerland. Notable Alpine peaks found in the park include Piz Pisoc at 3173m, Piz Quattervals at 3165m, Piz da l'Acqua at 3126m, and Piz Chaschauna at 3071m.

Lynxes are a keystone species in the area, as they keep the red deer and chamois populations in check so they don't eat all of the producers in the area.

Cowberries

Ptarmigans

Larch

Primary consumers include ungulates like the chamois, red deer, and ibex. Ptarmigans, alpine shrews, mountain hares, and wood ants are also present.

Secondary consumers include foxes, wolves, lynxes, grass frogs, northern vipers, and common lizards.

Tertiary consumers include the golden eagle and spotted nutcracker.

Honey fungus and bearded vultures are decomposers found in the park.

Marmots

Common Lizard

Nutcracker

Ibex

Red Deer

Alpine Shrew

Alpine Hare

Wood Ant

Northern Viper

Golden Eagle

Honey Fungus

Brown Bear

Grass Frog

Lynx

The vulnerable alpine blue zephyr and alpine catchfly can be found here. Species that are endangered within the area include brown bears, Eurasian lynxes, and gray wolves. The bearded vulture and alpine shrew are listed as near-threatened.

Bearded Vulture

Bibliography

Link to Environment and Society article about Swiss National Park being a model preserve.Link to the Swiss National Park website.

The area has a distinct wet and dry season and a distrinct warm and cold seasons with temperatures that range from around the high-20 degrees to the mid-50 degrees.

The area around the Fuorn Pass was considered for establishment as a national park beginning in 1904. Swiss National Park was deisgnated as a national park on August 1st, 1914. It centenary was celebrated in this year, 2014. The Engadine Power Company began operations along the river in the park in 1957. New national park regulations were adopted in 1980. An expansion of 3.6sq kilometers was added in 2000.

The park gets some 150,000 tourists every year and an electric plant around the area harness energy from the river that runs through the park and helps the local economy.

Norway Spruce

Cembra Pine

Abiotic factors include precipitation, geographical features like mountains, water sources, temperature, and the amount of solar radiation recieved. Limiting factors of the area include a permanent snow level between 2900 and 3000 meters, and a tree line of 2200 meters where there is too little oxygen for trees to grow, and the thiness of the air itself


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