STW Section 2

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STW Section 2

Strategies that Work: Section 2: Chapters 6-9

Members: Christine DoyleFarrah McNeillSarah OttumMelissa Zurawski

Chapter 9

Reading Strategy: Visualizing and InferringVisualizing and inferring are closely related to each other. Inferring means using background knowledge with context clues in order to figure out what is not directly stated in the text. In order to visualize, we have to infer using mental images instead of words and thoughts. When we visualize, we are creating a movie in our mind. Both of these strategies are necessary to enhance understanding when we read. What can teachers do?One way to teach visualizing is to read a passage aloud that is vividly descriptive while students close their eyes to visualize. On page 134, there is a passage about a barn that would be awesome to use when introducing visualizing. Visualizing is also great to use when making comparisons (as described on page 135). So, for example, if a student has a hard time imagining how large a 6.5 inch dinosaur’s tooth is, we can compare it to a banana’s size (either have the student to visualize a banana or bring one in to show them). According to page 140, a great way to introduce inferring is to show readers picture books with no words, allowing them to infer ideas, predict outcomes, and to create meaning. Playing charades is another way to help our students understand how to infer.

Chapter 6

Reading Strategy: Monitoring ComprehensionWhy is it important to monitor comprehension when reading? Readers have an inner conversation with the text while they read. “They hear a voice in their head speaking to them as they read- a voice that questions, connects, laughs, cries” (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007, p.78). This inner conversation keeps readers engaged and allows them to build their understanding. What can teachers do? Explicitly teach students to:*Follow their inner converstion and leave tracks of their thinking*Notice when they stray from their inner conversation and repair comprehension by using fix- up strategies*Stop, think, and react to information as they read(Harvey & Goudvis, 2007, p. 84)

Reading Strategy: Questioning Why is it important to use questioning strategies when reading? "Questions are the master key to understanding. Questions clarify confusion. Questions stimulate research efforts. Questions propel us forward and take us deeper into reading. Human beings are driven to find answers and make sense of the world" (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007).

Reading Strategy: Activating and Connecting to Background Knowledge Why is it important to activate background knowledge when reading?When students have background knowledge about a topic,they are more likely to understand the text and make connections.Knowledge and connections construct meaning.(Harvey & Goudvis, 2007).

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Resource: Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A., (2007). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publications.

Student Sample: Questions and Answers in Two Column Format (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007, p. 115).

Here is a video of how the quesitoning strategy can be used in a classroom, before, during and after reading.

What can teachers do? *Share questions about own reading*Have students write "I wonder" questions before reading*Develop "thick" and "thin" questions *Develop authentic questions with following guidelines (both teacher and students): prompt thinking, don't always have one right answer, may have many answers, cause us to ponder and wonder, dispel or clarify confusion, challenge us to rethink our opinions, lead us to seek out further information, are subject to discussion, debate , and conversation, may require further research. (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007)

What can teachers do?*Model how texts remind us of our own thoughts and experiences*Encourage students to share their personal connections*Teach students the different between connections that help usunderstand the text and connections that don’t.*Teach readers to merge their thinking with new information byencouraging stop, think, and react*Help students establish T-S, T-T, and T-W connections



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