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Human Anatomy

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REFRENES1 3 Diagnosis-Learn About Tests Used in Stroke Diagnosis5 The Stroke Recovery Book6What are the symptoms of stroke?7,P00777/8 9

(Summary of stroke) A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain is blocked. Without oxygen, brain cells start to die after a few minutes. Sudden bleeding in the brain also can cause a stroke if it damages brain cells.If brain cells die or are damaged because of a stroke, symptoms occur in the parts of the body that these brain cells control. Examples of stroke symptoms include sudden weakness; paralysis or numbness of the face, arms, or legs (paralysis is an inability to move); trouble speaking or understanding speech; and trouble seeing.A stroke is a serious medical condition that requires emergency care. A stroke can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death.

The major risk factors for stroke include:High blood pressure. High blood pressure is the main risk factor for stroke. Blood pressure is considered high if it stays at or above 140/90 mmHg over time. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure is defined as 130/80 mmHg or higher. (The mmHg is millimeters of mercury—the units used to measure blood pressure.)Smoking. Smoking can damage blood vessels and raise blood pressure. Smoking also may reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches your body's tissues. Exposure to secondhand smoke also can damage the blood vessels.Diabetes. Diabetes is a disease in which the blood sugar level is high because the body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use its insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells where it’s used for energy.Heart diseases. Coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease), cardiomyopathy (KAR-de-o-mi-OP-a-the), heart failure, and atrial fibrillation can cause blood clots that can lead to a stroke.Brain aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Aneurysms are balloon-like bulges in an artery that can stretch and burst. AVMs are tangles of faulty arteries and veins that can rupture (break open) within the brain. AVMs may be present at birth, but often aren’t diagnosed until they rupture.Age and gender. Your risk of stroke increases as you get older. At younger ages, men are more likely than women to have strokes. However, women are more likely to die from strokes. Women who take birth control pills also are at slightly higher risk of stroke.Race and ethnicity. Strokes occur more often in African American, Alaska Native, and American Indian adults than in Caucasian, Hispanic, or Asian American adults.Personal or family history of stroke or TIA. If you’ve had a stroke, you’re at higher risk for another one. Your risk of having a repeat stroke is the highest right after a stroke. A TIA also increases your risk of having a stroke, as does having a family history of stroke.Other risk factors for stroke, many of which of you can control, include:Alcohol and illegal drug use, including cocaine, amphetamines, and other drugsUnhealthy cholesterol levelsLack of physical activityUnhealthy dietObesityStress and depressionCertain medical conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, vasculitis (vas-kyu-LI-tis; inflammation of the blood vessels), and bleeding disorderext here

Within a few minutes of having a stroke brain cells begin to die and symptoms emerge. It is important to recognize the symptoms, as prompt treatment is crucial to recovery.Common symptoms include:Trouble walking, loss of balance and coordination13Speech problems13Dizziness13Numbness, weakness, or paralysis13Blurred, blackened, or double vision13Sudden severe headache13Confusion.13Smaller strokes (o

Stroke risk factors: Risk of stroke and second stroke is influenced by a number of factors. The more stroke risk factors you have, the higher your chances of having a stroke.They fall into three groups:Stroke risk factors that you cannot controlAge – as you get older, your risk of stroke increasesGender – stroke is more common in menA family history of strokeMedical stroke risk factorsTransient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)Irregular Pulse (Atrial Fibrillation)DiabetesFibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)Lifestyle stroke risk factors that you can controlHigh blood pressure and strokeHigh blood pressure (hypertension) is the most important known risk factor for stroke. High blood pressure can cause damage to blood vessel walls, which may eventually lead to a stroke.High CholesterolHigh cholesterol (hyperlipidemia /dyslipidemia) – contributes to blood vessel disease, which often leads to stroke.Cigarette smoking and strokeSmoking can increase your risk of stroke or further stroke by increasing blood pressure and reducing oxygen in the blood.Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 toxic chemicals which are deposited on the lungs or absorbed into the bloodstream. Some of these chemicals damage blood vessel walls, leading to atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries). This increases the chance of blood clots forming in the arteries to the brain and heart. Smoking also increases the stickiness of the blood. This further increases the risk of blood clots forming. Seek advice on how you can quit smoking as soon as possible by calling the QUIT line on 13 78 48.Obesity or being overweight and strokeBeing overweight or obese can increase the risk of stroke. Too much body fat can contribute to high blood pressure, high cholesterol and can lead to heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. If you are unable to maintain your weight within recommended levels, ask a doctor or nutritionist for help.Poor diet and lack of exerciseBeing inactive, overweight or both can increase your risk of high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease and stroke.A balanced diet eating fresh foods where possible is recommended. It is also important to maintain a balance between exercise and food intake; this helps to maintain a healthy body weight.People who take part in moderate activity are less likely to have a stroke. Try and build up to at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week.Talk to your doctor about an exercise program as people with high blood pressure should avoid some types of exercises.

7) Who is at risk for srtoke?

3) What are the symptoms of stroke?

1 )Summary

2)What causes the stroke?

The effects of stroke (brain attack) vary from person to person based on the type, severity, location, and number of strokes. The brain is extremely complex and each area of the brain is responsible for a special function or ability. When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.The brain is divided into 3 main areas:Cerebrum (consisting of the right and left sides or hemispheres)CerebellumBrain stem Illustration of lateral view of brain and divisions into cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstemClick Image to EnlargeDepending on which of these regions of the brain the stroke occurs, the effects may be very differen

4)What part of the nervous system is affected by stroke?

5) How stroke diagnosed?

6) How does a stroke get treated?

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8)How many people have stroke?, famous people who had it

Comparing stroke between man and woman

What is the prognosis for stroke?Stroke remains a major killer in the United States and worldwide. In the U.S., 20% of stroke patients will die within a year. However, with the ability to intervene with thrombolytic therapy to reverse the stroke and with more aggressive rehabilitation, the goal is to increase patient survival and function after recovery.Specialized stroke centers, hospitals that have the doctors, equipment, and resources to intervene quickly and treat strokes aggressively have shown to increase stroke survival and patient function and recovery. These hospitals are certified by The Joint Commission, the American Stroke Association, and the health departments of some states. It is to your advantage to know which hospitals in your area are designated stroke centers because they will have the specialists and equipment needed to minimize diagnosis to treatment times.

9)What is the prognosis of stroke?



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