Stem Cells

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by LittenP4G4
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Cell Biology
Grade:
10

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Stem Cells

Stem Cells

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to turn into many types of cells that Have more of a specicilized function. Unlike an ordinary cell, they can choose between becoming a red blood cell or a muscle cell and other types. They are undifferentiated.Stem cells are used for many different studies such as the testing new drugs and the generation of new tissue. As humas we do have a small amout of stem cells in our organs already.

Buy inStem cells are important to learn about because they have amazing potential that scientists are just starting to unlock. Since stem cells can morph into any kind of cell they can repair damage that normal cells can not repair. They can save lives and are a generaly new topic to scientists today.

Tie in This relates to our class because, earlier in the year we studied cells. Not only what is in a cell but the specific types of cells and what their function is. Since we have already learned about what is in the cell and how they duplicate (miosis and mitosis). Learning this cell should not be that hard. Also relates to the immune system, because it helps repair organs and fight off disease.

Stem cells under a microscope

Embryonic stem cells

Adult stem cellls

induced Pluripontent stem cells

Three main types of stem cells

The Controversy of stem cellsThere is a controversy because embryonic stem cells can only be gathered from a fertilized egg. But, these fertilized eggs are not taken from mothers they are taken from in vitro fertiliziation clinc where people willingly donated their eggs. This beggs the question or not if a life was destoryed or not in the process wich ultimatly leads to the debate.

Human embryonic stem cells are created by transferring cells from a preimplantation-stage embryo into a plastic laboratory culture dish that contains a nutrient broth known as culture medium. The process of growing these cell lines are not effcient, because lines are not produced everytime the cells are put into culture dishes. So if the cells do survive and multiply enough to crowd the dish, They are removed and put into seperate dishes. There are several tests the scientists do to make sure these cells are embryonic cells.Scientists use certain "recipies" to direct the differentiation of these cells. If scientists can reliably direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific cell types, they may be able to use the resulting, differentiated cells to treat certain diseases in the future. Diseases that might be treated by these cells created from human embryonic stem cells include diabetes, traumatic spinal cord injury, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, heart disease, and vision and hearing loss.

Embryonic stem cells

Adult stem cellls

Induced pluripotent stem cells are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express genes and factors important for keeping the properties of embryonic stem cells. Even though there is not that much research on these iPSCs they are already a useful device for drug development and desiease modeling. Although these stem cells were discovered in 2007 we know that the iPSC strategy creates pluripotent stem cells. That together with studies of other types of pluripotent stem cells, will help researchers learn how to reprogram cells to repair damaged tissues in the human body.

Adult stem cells (also known as somatic stem cells) are thought to be undifferentiated cells, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ. The adult stem cell can renewi its self and can differentiate to yeild some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Unlike embryonic stem cells the origin of adult stem cells are still under investigation. One example is Hematopoietic stem cell, they make up a small portion of the stroma cell that can generate bone, cartalige, and fat. The job of the adult stem cell is to replace injured/dead cells in certain organs and tissues. Some examples of potential treatments include developing insulin-producing cells for type 1 diabetes,and repairing damaged heart muscle following a heart attack with cardiac muscle cells.

induced Pluripontent stem cells


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