[2014] Sandra Thiongo: Standards: SPS1 & SPS4

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[2014] Sandra Thiongo: Standards: SPS1 & SPS4

Standards: SPS1 & SPS4

The periodic table is used to organize the different types of atoms, or elements. The elements are arranged by atomic number in rows and columns, from left to right and top to bottom. Vertical columns are called groups of elements while periods of elements are made up of horizontal rows. Elements are classified as metals, non-metals, and metalloids.

*atomic mass unit: a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule*atomic number: the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element* isotope: an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass*mass number: the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom*atomic mass: the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units*ionic bond: the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another*ion: a charged particle that forms when an atom or group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons*crystal lattice:the regular pattern in which a crystal is arranged*covalent bond: a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons*molecule: a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties*metallic bond: a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them

Important notes - in covalent bonds, electrons are shared, and in ionic bonds, electrons are transferred .- the number of protons is the atomic number



Important Vocab

Parts of an Atom

Ionic Bonds vs. Covalent Bonds

Important Vocab periodic: describes something that occurs or repeats at regular intervalsperiodic law: the law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elementsperiod: in geology, a unit of geologic time that is longer than an epoch but shorter than an eragroup: a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical propertiesalkaline- earth metal: one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium)alkali metal: one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)halogen: one of the elements of Group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine); halogens combine with most metals to form saltsnoble gas:one of the elements of Group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon); noble gases are unreactive


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