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Chemical Elements

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Atomic Number:11Atomic Mass:22.9898 g/molNumber of Protons/Electrons: 11Number of Neutrons: 12Classification: alkali metal

SODIUMSymbol: Na

HISTORY and OCCURRENCE IN NATUREUntil the 18th century no distinction was made between potassium and sodium.Sodium was first isolated in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy,in England, who made it by the electrolysis of very dry molten sodium hydroxide, NaOH. Occurrence:Sodium is the sixth most abundant element on Earth. It is never found in its pure form because it is so reactive. It is only found in compounds such as sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is found in ocean water (salt water), salt lakes, and underground deposits. Pure sodium can be recovered from sodium chloride through electrolysis. Sodium gets its name from the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, Natrium.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIESReactivity with water: Reacts explosively with waterOxidation: Combines with oxygen at room temperatureFlammability :Burns with a brilliant golden-yellow flameReactivity with acids: Reacts with acids to produce hydrogen gasDissolves in mercury to form a sodium amalgamSodium is perhaps the most characteristic alkali metal, reacting violently with water and rapidly with the oxygen in air .It tarnishes easily and has a low melting point and density. Therefore, sodium is usually stored in mineral oil or kerosene.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIESColor: Silver-WhiteMalleability: Capable of being shaped or bentDuctility: Easily pulled or stretched into a thin wireLuster: Has a shine or glowConductivity: Good transmission of heat or electricitySoftness: Soft enough to be cut with a knifeDensity: 0.97 -3 at 20 °CMelting point: 97.5 °CBoiling point: 883 °CState: Solid


Atomic Structure

SOCIETAL APPLICATIONSSodium is an important component of the human body. Controlled levels of sodium are highly significant to our nervous system. It also helps our brain to workThe most common use is in the form of table salt, which is also known as sodium chloride. It is used as a seasoning ingredient in every kind of dish .Sodium fluoride is used in a handful of industries, including glass frosting, wood preserving and stainless steel pricklingSodium is also used in creating beautiful lighting fixtures. Lamps, with sodium are often used as street lamps. Sodium has a very important application in different industries. Metallic sodium is crucial in manufacturing organic products. It is used in manufacturing titanium.

Producers Of Sodium in the form of NaClThe biggest producers of NaCl are China,United States ,India and Germany. Primary mining areas are Germany, Poland, Kenya.

Concerns with extraction and disposalThe electrolysis for extracting a reactive metal like sodium uses large amounts of energy making it expensive to produce.Evaporated salt is manufactured by evaporating the water from brine, under vacuum.This brine,if it seeps into water or dissolves in the soil, causes pollution and makes it toxic for consumptionSodium hydroxide,if it touches our skin can cause severe burns and can be very dangerous if exposed to the atmosphere since it is so reactiveSodium disposed in water or soil can make it too basic and harm the aquatic life .



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