Segregation & Jim Crow

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Segregation & Jim Crow

"Come listen all you galls and boys,I'm going to sing a little song, My name is Jim Crow.Weel about and turn about and do jis so,Eb'ry time I weel about I I jump Jim Crow"

Jim Crow: Song to Segregation

*'Jim Crow' : character used by a failing white actor, Thomas Rice, in the early 1830's. *Used burnt cork to blacken his face,* Copied shuffling dance of black slaves *Represented what white Americans believed *Boston Post reported that, “the two most popular characters in the world at the present time are [Queen] Victoria and Jim Crow.” *Term 'Jim Crow' used to describe segregation laws.

Lasting Impact


1619 - First Slaves in U.S. 20 Africans sold as slaves in Jamestown, Virginia1662 - Hereditary Slave Law(Child born to a slave is a slave.)1705 - Non-Christians are Slaves(Virginia declares all non-Christian servants are slaves. All slaves = real estate...1740 - South Carolina "Negro Act" (Makes it illegal for slaves to move abroad, assemble in groups, raise food, earn money, and learn to read.1806 - Get Out!Virginia requires slaves to leave the state within a year of being freed. 1819 - Virginia outlaws Black Schools(Blacks ' mulattos, free or slave, can't meet for educational purposes; teaching blacks to read and write is forbidden.)1836 - Not Here in Texas (Free blacks and mulattos are forbidden from entering the state.)1857 - Dred Scott Decision (African-Americans were not citizens)1863 - Emancipation Proclamation(Lincoln issues executive order freeing slaves in rebel states.) - Blacks in the Military (The Federal War Department establishes the Bureau of Colored Troops.)1865 - 13th Amendment (Abolition of slavery)1868 - 14th Amendment(Citizenship ' civil rights for Aftican-Americans)1870 - 15th Amendment Voting Rights for African-American Men - School Segregation(Virginia and Tennessee pass laws making it illegal for blacks and whites to attend the same school. By 1878 WV, MO, NC, AL, WY, TX, GA, and MS all have legalized school segregation.)1877 - Ohio Restricts Marriage(Ohio law prohibits relationships between blacks and whites. Between 1877 and 1888 MO, SC, WV, FL, UT, will too.)1878 - Supreme Court Hall v. DeCuir US Supreme Court overturns a Louisianna law banning racial discrimination on steamboats.1882 - U.S. v. HarrisSupreme court voids KKK Act of 1871, which allowed fed deployment of national troops agains Klansmen and prosecute hate crimes.1883 - Civil Rights Act OverturnedThe US Supreme Court rules that the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which prohibited racial descrimination in some public spaces, is unconstitutional.1889 - Texas Restricts TransportationRailroads are required to maintain separate train cars for blacks.1890 - Voting LawsBetween 1890 and 1906, every southern state passes laws to prevent blacks from registering to vote. Poll taxes, literacy tests, and the "grandfather clause" all worked to disenfrachise blacks. -More RestrictionsBetween 1890-91 GA, AL, LA all enact restrictions against blacks in prisons, and railiroads1890 -Louisiana Restricts Railroads - Georgia Restricts Prisons1891 - Kentucky Restricts Schools - Alabama Restricts Railroads1895 -Georgia Restricts SchoolsGeorgia bars black and white children from attending the same schools. Anyone who teaches black and white students in the same classroom forfeits all pay. The law and the penalties associated with it will be renewed in 1926, 1933, and 1945.1895 -South Carolina Constitution Amended to Segregate Schools1896 -Plessy v. FergusonUnited States Supreme Court upholds a Louisiana law that requires "separate but equal" facilities for blacks. The ruling effectively clears the way for state lawmakers to enforce segregation in schools, libraries, hotels, hospitals, prisons, theaters, parks, bathrooms, trains, buses, and cemeteries.1897 -Oklahoma Restricts Schools1899 -Cumming v. Board of EducationRichmond County, Georgia has one high school for whites and none for blacks. The plaintiffs charge the county school board has violated the "separate but equal" doctrine established by Plessy v. Ferguson. The county claims it cannot afford both a white and a black school. The Court rules unanimously in favor of Richmond. In doing so, it establishes a precedent for the legal enforcement of separation without regard for equality.1899 -Georgia Restricts Railroads1900 -Lynching in the 20th CenturyBetween 1900-1910 at least 791 blacks are lynched or burned alive in the United States. 1901 -North Carolina Restricts Libraries -Alabama Restricts MarriageAlabama Constitution is amended to block any law authorizing or legalizing interracial marriage. The measure will remain unchanged until November 2000.1902 -Virginia Constitution Restricts Schools1904 -Kentucky Restricts CollegesUnder the new law, even private schools and colleges must be separated.1907 -Texas Restricts Streetcars -Florida Restricts Railroads1908 -Oklahoma Restricts Transportation; Raises FinesTeachers who violate the law can be fined up to $50 and lose teaching certificate. Parents of white students who attend a "colored school" can be fined up to $20 per day. -Wyoming and Colorado Restrict Marriage1909 -North Carolina Restricts Prisons -South Dakota Restricts Marriage and Increases Penalties1911 -Nevada Restricts Marriage -Nebraska Restricts Marriage1912 -Louisiana Restricts HousingA Louisiana law prohibits homes designated for blacks to be built in white communities and vice versa. -Arizona gains statehood, Restricts Schools 1914 -Louisiana Restricts Circus1915 -Alabama Restricts Nurses -Grandfather ClauseSupreme Court rules the "grandfather clause," used by many states to restrict the black vote, is unconstitutional. -Texas Increases Penalty for Interracial Marriage and RelationsThe penalty is imprisonment for up to five years. -Oklahoma Restricts Phone Booths1917 -U. S. Enters World War One -Jim Crow Protest MarchIn New York City, W. E. B. Du Bois leads a silent march in protest of Jim Crow laws and lynching crimes.1918 - Virginia Separates Prisons - World War One Ends November 11, 1919 -Texas Separates Libraries1920 -Lynching ContinuesDuring the 1910s, at least 568 blacks are lynched or burned alive in the United States. 1921 -Oklahoma Restricts TeachersTeachers cannot instruct white and black students in the same facility. -Tennessee Restricts Coal Mining Companies1923 -New Mexico Restricts StudentsNew Mexico passes a law that forbids black students from entering schoolrooms designated for whites. 1925 -Oklahoma Restricts Boxers -Connecticut Prohibits RidiculingA Connecticut law prohibits movie theaters from featuring films that ridicule African Americans.1926 -Virginia Restricts Public Places1928 -Kentucky Restricts HospitalsA Kentucky law requires white and black patients to be housed in separate hospital facilities.1929 -Stock Market Crashes 1930 -Lynching ContinuesDuring the 1920s, at least 281 blacks are lynched or burned alive in the United States. 1930 -Oregon Renews LawsOregon renews statute first passed in 1866. The law prohibits any white person from marrying or residing with someone of another race.1932 -Tennessee Makes Interracial Marriage a Felony, Segregates Schools -South Carolina Restricts Adoption, Circuses -FDR Elected President of United States1933 -Texas Restricts Boxing -South Carolina Segregates Public PlacesThis includes mandatory segregation in public parks, recreation centers, amusement centers, and beaches.1935 -North Carolina Restricts BooksLaw prohibits exchange of books between white and black schools. -South Carolina Restricts Bus Drivers1936 -Virginia Separates Riders1937 -Joe Louis WinsJoe Louis defeats the reigning heavyweight champion Jimmy Braddock to become the first black athlete to hold the world title in 22 years.1939 -Florida Segregates BooksSchoolbooks used by black students must be stored separately from those used by whites.1940 -Alabama Segregates Prisons1941 -Pearl Harbor Bombed, US Enters World War II1942 -Mississippi Segregates Hospitals1945 -Wyoming Renews RestrictionsWyoming renews law that prohibits interracial marriage. Violators are now subject to fines of up to $1,000 and imprisonment for up to five years.1945 -Alabama Literacy LawState constitution amended with new voting qualifications; electors must demonstrate literacy, must identify and explain any article of the U.S. Constitution, and must prove that they have been employed during the year prior to registration.1947 -Arkansas Separates Places -North Carolina Restricts Cemeteries1949 -Texas Restricts Coal Mines1951 -Kentucky Restricts Adoptions1952 -Missouri Restricts Adoption1954 -Brown v. Board of EducationThe Court declares state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.1955 -Maryland Penalizes MothersThe Maryland legislature amends an 1884 law against mixed marriages. Under the new law, any white woman who gives birth to a child conceived with a black or mixed-race man will be imprisoned for up to five years. The law is renewed in 1957.1956 -Alabama City Restricts GamesHuntsville, Alabama bans whites and blacks from playing cards, dominoes, checkers, pool, baseball, basketball, football, or golf together. -Kentucky Restricts Company Socials -Louisiana Separates Public Places -North Carolina Separates Bathrooms in Factories1957 -The “Little Rock Nine” are enrolled in Little Rock Central High School. Nine African-American students were chosen to enroll in previously all white high school. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Governor Faubus. They attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower.1958 -Virginia Closes SchoolsThe Virginia legislature votes to close any school that enrolls both black and white students. -Mississippi Closes ParksThe Mississippi legislature authorizes the governor to close public parks in order to prevent desegregation.1959 -Arkansas Segregates BusesAn Arkansas law requires all state buses to designate whites-only seating areas.1963 -Birmingham Segregates Bathrooms -March on Washington -16th Street Baptist Church BombingFour members of the Ku Klux Klan planted a minimum of 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the front steps of the church. The explosion at the church killed four little girls and injured 22 others. - JFK Assassinated1964 - Freedom SummerCampaign to register as many black voters as possible in the state of Mississippi. The attempts by the volunteers were met with violence and three of them were murdered.1965 - March from Selma to Montgomery Alabama, aka 'Bloody Sunday'Bloody Sunday on March 7, 1965, took its name from the beating that roughly 600 peaceful civil rights activists sustained at the hands of white state troopers and police who attacked them with batons and sprayed them with tear gas. - Voting Rights Act of 1965Landmark legislation that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.[7][8] It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the American Civil Rights Movement on August 6, 1965, and Congress later amended the Act five times 1967 -Sarasota, Florida Separates BeachesThe chief of police is authorized to clear any public beach whenever members of two or more races are present.1968 - April 4 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated - June 5: Robert F Kennedy Assassinated

No More: The Children of Birmingham 1963 and the Civil Rights Movement


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