Scientific Card

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by bridgetm924
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Scientific Card



Born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England


1975 Eddington Medal1976 Hughes Medal of R.S.1979 Albert Einstein Medal1985 Gold Medal of the R.A.S.1988 Wolf Prize in Physics1989 Companion of honour2006 Copley Medal of the R.S.2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom


1970 Singularity Theorems 1974 Hawking Radiation

Hawking’s first major contribution to science was his idea of singularity. A singularity is a place in either space or time at which the quantity becomes infinite(w/out ending). This is found in a black hole, the final stage of a star & it has infinite strength. His work came both Penrose & Einstein. He showed that our universe has its origins in a singularity & his research let him acquire characteristics of the black hole. A black holes event horizon can be detected & hawking proved that the surface area of the event horizon could only increase. When two black holes merged the surface area of the new hole was larger than the sum of the two origin.Hawking discovered that black holes could give off heat, which oppsed the idea that nothing could escape the black hole and black holes were immense in size because they were the end result of the collapse of gigantic stars. Black holes have many particles which have been named after him, Hawking Radiation.

Particles and anti-particles are constantly appearing and vanishing in the physical vacuum. This can be indirectly observed in numerous lab experments.

Hawking has Amytropic Lateral Sclerosis, It is a condition that has progressed over the years. As of 2012, he is almost completely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device. He also was diagnosed with motor neurone disease at age 21. Doctors said that they did not expect him to live long. By 1974 he could not feed himself or get out of bed. In 1985 Hawking contracted pneumonina, which limited his respiratory capacity. Hawking also had an emergency tracheotomy, which makes him unable to speak. A speech device was created in cambridge, which enables hawking to operate a computer keyboard with small movements.

Bridget MijaresPeriod 2


The singularity theorem is a closed trapped surface. This is a surface where the gravitaitonal field is so strong that outgoing protons are dragged inwards.

In 1980 Hawking answered one of Einstein's unanswered theories: Unified field theory. The theory explains the conditions that were present at the beginning of the univese as well as the features of the physical laws of nature. Thorough his research on the the origins of the earth, he started to develop links between gravity and behavior of atoms. This information then allowed for the development of the grand unified theory, which physicists use to explain all matter.

Hawking was born into a family of thinkers. His mom was one of the first female students in Oxford University and his father was a respected medical researcher. When Hawking was born England was dealing with WWII and with the constant German bombs.


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