School Desegregation and the Clinton 12

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by cmtuell
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
American History
Grade:
5

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School Desegregation and the Clinton 12

School Desegregation and the Clinton 12

Grade Level: 5 Standards:5.5.12 understand domestic policies in the post World War II period. c. Describe the struggle for racial and gender equality. d. Explain Brown V. Board of Education and its importance of to the Civil Rights Movement. f. Describe Tennessee's involvement during the Civil Rights movement.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)The decision held that racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which states that "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."http://www.nps.gov/brvb/historyculture/brownvboard.htm

Brown v. Board of Education is actually based on five different desegregation cases all rolled into one:Belton (Bulah) v. Gebhart [Delaware]Bolling v. Sharpe [District of Columbia]Brown v. Board of Education [Kansas]Briggs v. Elliott [South Carolina]Davis v. County School Board [Virginia]

On January 4, 1956, Judge Taylor made his final decree following the Supreme Court’s Brown decision and ordered the Anderson County School Board to end segregation by no later than the fall term of 1956.Most Clinton residents accepted the integration ruling . No public displays of outrage or attempts to stop the process took place in the summer of 1956 and 12 African American students registered on August 20, 1956 without incident.

On December 5, 1950, a group of TN citizens filed a lawsuit which became known as McSwain et al. v. County Board of Education of Anderson County, Tennessee (104 F. Supp. 1861, 1952). Federal District Judge Robert L. Taylor denied the lawsuit and upheld the position of the county school board on April 26, 1952.

Bobby Cain, one of the Clinton 12, became the first African American to graduate from a white public high school in the South since Jim Crow.

Desegregation of All Grades Did Not Occur Until 1965The Green McAdoo School ended its days as a segregated blacks-only institution in 1965. Finally the 10-year struggle to desegregate public education in Clinton and Anderson County was over.

Information from:http://www.greenmcadoo.org/index.htmlhttp://www.nps.gov/brvb/index.htmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csftDtWTms0www.google.com/images

Clinton 12 Documentary Trailer(has some language.)

Civil Rights Movement (1955-1972) Timelinehttp://www.nps.gov/brvb/historyculture/civilrights.htm

10 of the 12 African American students gathered at the Green McAdoo School and then walked together down Foley Hill to classes at the white Clinton High School on August 27, 1956.

Threats, violence, and large, agitated crowds, started August 28th. People were fired up by white supremacist John Kasper and KKK leader Asa Carter. Because of the outburst of violence, the National Guard was called in to keep order. The use of the National Guard was another first in the Civil Rights Movement.


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