School Biology Project: Digestion V

by davincico
Last updated 11 years ago

Life Science

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School Biology Project: Digestion V

Although it has a small diameter,the intestinal walls are covered in wrinkles called rugae, which are themselves covered in millions of finger-like projections called villi, which are studded with millions of smaller projections called microvilli. This provides a surface-area of about the size of a tennis court for nutrient absorption. Inside each villus is a series of lymph vessels (lacteals) and capillaries. The vessel absorbs digested fat into the lymphatic system which eventually drains into the bloodstream. The blood vessels receive other nutrients and transport them to the liver. Here the blood is filtered, toxins are removed and the nutrients are processed.

The duodenum continues the process of food breakdown. It is roughly horse-shoe-shaped. Anatomically, it is is sub-divided into four segments: the superior, descending, horizontal and ascending duodenum. Inside the duodenal tube, chyme is mixed with bile from the gallbladder and pancreatic juice. Bile breaks down fat particles into smaller droplets, while pancreatic juice contains enzymes that convert fats into fatty acids and glycerol, plus sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid.

Functions Of The 3 Sections of the Small Intestine

1.The Duodenum

This is where the final juices to help digestion are secreted by the cells in the jejunal lining.It is also the part of the bowel where the majority of nutrients are absorbed into the bodyThis includes the absorption of the substances made from the breakdown (digestion) of the carbohydrate, fat and protein from the food.

2. The Jejunum

The Iluem is the last part of the bowel and it is where any of the remaining nutrients ,water soluble minerals and bile salts( for recycling) are absorbed.***The terminal Iluem(last part) is where vitamin B12 is absorbed.If this part of the bowel has been removed then supplementary injections will be required for life as the Vitamin B12 stores in the liver will usually only last a year.

3.The Iluem


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