Russian Revolution

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Social Studies
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Russian Revolution

The Russo- Japnese War developed out of the rivalry between Russia and Japan for trade with Korea and control of neighboring Manchuria. The Russians already had control of Port Arthur, which was a naval base in Manchuria. In 1904 Japan attacked Port Arthur.The Russian troops could not stop the Japanese advance. Meanwhile, Russia attacked Japan. Japan sank most of Russian ships. In 1905, Russia agreed to give up Port Arthur and part of Sakhalin islands. Because of this event Japanese was recognized as a worldwide major power.

Bolshevik RevolutionVladimir Lenin led the revolution.The revolution was against the provisional government.Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in Petrograd. They soon formed a new government with Lenin as its head. Lenin became the virtual dictator of the first Marxist state in the world. In 1920, the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established.

Nicholas IINicholas II became the czar of Russia in1894. He also practiced autocracy, which is a system of government, in which the leader has absolute power. While he was reinging, a huge gap between the rich and the poor formed. Exploited laborers in factories began to organize strikes against the government. So, revolutionary movements began to form.

Russian Revolution

Economic Strains of WWI

The non-Bolsheviks opponents formed the White Army. The revolutionary leader, Leon Trotsky, commanded the Bolshevik Red Army. From 1918 to 1920, war happened in Russia. Around 15 million Russians died in the three-year struggle and in the famine that followed. In the end the Red Army triumphed and finally crushed all opposition to Bolshevik rule. In the aftermath of the civil war, Lenin and the Bolsheviks faced over-whelming problems.

On February 23, 1917, a large gathering of working-class women gathered in the center of Petrograd to mark International Women’s Day. While the demonstration began peacefully, the next morning it turned violent as the women were joined by hundreds of thousands of male workers who went on strike and flooded the streets, openly calling for an end to the war and even to the monarchy. The outnumbered police were unable to control the crowds. Several troops of a local guard regiment fired upon the crowds on February 26. The next day, more than 80,000 troops mutinied and joined with the crowds, in many cases directly fighting the police. The events in March of 1917 forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne.

Revolution of 1917

Russo-Japanese War

Economic Strains of WWI

In 1915, Nicholas moved his headquarters to the war front. His wife, Czarina Alexandra, ran the government while he was away, ignoring the czar’s chief advisers and, instead continuing to fall under the influence of Rasputin. The war was a disaster for Russia. It caused inflation, plunged the country into a food shortage, and ultimately cost the lives of nearly 5 million Russian soldiers and civilians, as well as a series of humiliating military defeats.

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Bloody SundayAt the end of the 19th century, industrial workers formed labor unions. In January of 1905, a wave of strikes began in St. Petersburg. During Bloody Sunday peaceful people were arguing about how they were treated. Then the police fired upon them and 100 people were killed, many of them were badly injured. This event marked the beginning of the violent phase of the Russian Revolution of 1905.

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Civil War

Political Reforms and Creation of USSR

Nicholas II

Bloody Sunday

Bolshevik Revolution

Lenin organized Russia into several self-governing republics under the central government.In 1922, the country was named the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.They did this in honor of the councils that helped launch the Bolshevik Revolution.It is also known as USSR.Each republic was controlled from the new capital, Moscow. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was by area the world’s largest country.

Civil War

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