Roman Republic and Civilization

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Roman Republic and Civilization

The Roman Republic and CivilizationTyesha MillerSeptember 30, 2015

Early Civilization of Rome

The Roman Republic

Punic Wars

Decline Of the Roman Republic

Roman Conquest

ASPIRES

Rome is located on the Italian peninsula. It began as a little settlement on the Palatine Mount, a hill just south of the Tiber river and fourteen miles from its mouth. Legend had it that in 753 B.C.E twins Romulus and Remus founded Rome on hills and thus the city acquired the name the "City of the Seven Hill." The land was fertile and became a center of trade. The valley of trading in Forum. The Etruscans were the first to organize the first civilizations in Italy and held control of Rome, establishing a monarchy. The Etruscans helped Rome emerge as a city. However, The tyranny of the Etruscans caused the Romans to despise Kings and in 509 B.C.E., the Romans overthrew the Etruscans to establish a republic which puts the power of the government in the people hands.

Roman nobles established a Republic form of government in order to maintain their position of power. The chief executive officers were the consuls and praetors. Both consuls and praetors possessed imperium "the right to command" and could lead armies. Consuls were elected by two annually and tasked with administering the government. The praetors are tasked with governing Rome when consuls were away at war but their primary occupation was execution of justice for civil laws regarding citizens and noncitizens. The Roman Senate, made up of land owning white males, was a group of 300 served lifetime terms and came to hold an important position in the Roman government. Their advice was not taken too lightly and basically became force of law in third century BCE. There were also numerous assemblies in the Roman Republic.The centuriate assembly was the most powerful, composed of the wealthiest citizens, tasked with electing the chief magistrates and passing laws. Another assembly was the council of the plebs that came into being in 471 BCE. In a nutshell, The Roman Republic was really an aristocratic Republican controlled by a relatively small group of privileged people.

The Punic wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Romans and the Carthage between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. In 264 BCE, Rome and carthage had declared war on each other for control over sicily, thus starting the first Punic war. The Carthanians seemed more equiped for the war fought as sea for they had an experienced naval force where as the Romans knew nothing of sea battle and were more equiped for land battles. Howerver the Romans got out victorious due to continuous rienforcemnet of the army and stategic military planing. The Cathrians lost due to their currupt greedy government and the governments lack of support for Hamilcar Barca. the Second Punic War began in 218 to 201 BCE, when Hannible of Carthian took the Roman city of Saguntum. Hannible defeted the first Roman army under Quintus Fabius Maximus in the Alps with his elephant army. Fabius was later replaced by generals Caius Terentius Varro and The Punic wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Romans and the Carthage between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. In 264 BCE, Rome and Carthage had declared war on each other for control over Sicily, thus starting the first Punic war. The Carthaginians seemed more equipped for the war fought as sea for they had an experienced naval force where as the Romans knew nothing of sea battle and were more equipped for land battles. However the Romans got out victorious due to continuous reinforcement of the army and strategic military planning. The Catharines lost due to their corrupt greedy government and the government's lack of support for Hamilcar Barca. the Second Punic War began in 218 to 201 BCE, when Hannibal of Carthian took the Roman city of Saguntum. Hannible defeated the first Roman army under Quintus Fabius Maximus in the Alps with his elephant army. Fabius was later replaced by general Caius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paulus; in the Battle of Cannae in 216 BCE, Hannible massacred the army. The next general to lead the Roman army against Hannible Scipio Africanus, who understood Hannibles tactics and used this knowledge to lead Rome into victory at the at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE. The Third Punic War began in 149 to 146 BCE, when the Carthians refused to disperse when seen as a threat to the Roman peace.The Roman general Scipio Aemilianus besieged the city for three years and, when it fell, sacked it and burned it to the ground. Rome emerged as the pre-eminent power in the Mediterranean and Carthage lay in ruin for over one hundred years until it was finally rebuilt following the death of Julius Caesar. The Punic Wars provided Rome with the training, the navy, and the wealth to expand from a small city to an empire which would rule the known world.

Rome's constant victories and Julius Caesar resulted evidently resulted in the decline of the Roman Republic. The wealthy became even richer with every battle won while life for the average Roman peasant gradually became worse. Slavery rise rapidly with slave revolts becoming a constant phenomenon in Roman life. Finally Military soldiers no longer fought for the good of the republic but for tangible rewarded paid to them for their service. This opened the door for a military leader Julius Caesar, born into the patrician class, to rise up and seized control of the Republic. Julius Caesar began his rise to power in 60 B.C.E. by forging an alliance with another general, Pompey, and a wealthy patrician, Crassus. Together, these three men assumed control of the Roman Republic, and Caesar assumed the position of consul. Historians have since dubbed the period of rule by these three men the First Triumvirate. The Triumvirate would soon break apart with the death of Crassus and the betrayal of Pompey. Caesar ultimately became the sole dictator of the Roman Republic in 47 BCE. In his reign, he enacted several reforms. Caesar founded many colonies in newly conquered territories and provided land and opportunity for poor Romans who chose to migrate there. He reduced the number of slaves and opened citizenship up to people living in the provinces. Finally, he created a new calendar named the Julian calendar, which is the same one we use today with a few modifications. Caesar defied the Senate which lead to a civil war within the Republic and would be betrayed and killed by the Senate in 44 BCE. This ended the Roman Republic and paved the way for the Roman Empire to rise.

Much of Roman life, culture, and ideas stemmed from the Greeks. When conquering Greek land the Romans brought with them priests, merchants, ambassadors, and artists back to their civilization. Art/Culture- Much of Roman art is Greek inspired. Statues were placed on public institutions as well as private homes depicting much realism. Wall paintings, and frescoes were based on portraits, landscape, mythology. They were also the first to use concrete on a large scale. Social- The Romans relied on slave labor more than any other civilization in the ancient world. This rich owned the best and the most as prestige was measured by how much hired help one had. The majority of the population was made up of slaves from all nationalities and used for different purposes. Greek slave were used as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists, while the menial slaves were used for household task and hired by businessmen as assistants and artisans. They were also used in construction. At the head of a Roman family which consisted of Father, his wife, his sons and their wives and children, unmarried daughters and slaves. A state within a state. In the republic, Father arranged marriages for their daughters and the guardianship of daughter would pass from father to husband "with legal control." By mid-first century "without legal control," became dominant meaning that a daughter stayed under her father even if she was married. This was in a woman's favor as most fathers of married women were dead, which meant she assumed all his independent property rights. In wealthy families girls were even educated and given private tutors. Upper class women in Roman society also enjoyed more freedom than Classical Athenian women. Political-The first system of laws established in earlier Roman society was the Twelve Table in 450 B.C.E. However, as Roman grew and incorporated both Roman and Non-Roman citizens, civil laws needed to be created to accommodate everyone. The Romans developed the Law of nations, with natural law based on reasons. This consists of rules we abide by today such as one is innocent until proven guilty, the accused as abled to defend themselves in a court of law, and a judge cannot make a Vedic without weighing the evidence. Intellectual- Roman boys were taught by Greek tutors or sent to Athens to study. Rome underwent a literary age in third century BCE where Latin Literature was strongly influenced by the Greeks. Poetry became a popular as well as oratory. Prominent figures in this time were Catullus, know for adapting and refining Greek forms of poetry expressing emotion and Cicero, known for his exemplary skills in oratory and greatness in prose writing. The Golden Age of Latin Literature was the height of Latin Literature taking place in the Augustan age. Religion- Before the rise and spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire, in earlier Roman religion spirits were believed to be around everyone and in everything. Ancestors were also believed to watch over family. The Romans had a similar mythology the Greeks.While the study of Roman mythology tends to emphasize the major gods - Jupiter, Neptune (god of the sea), Pluto (god of the underworld) and Juno - there existed, of course, a number of “minor” gods and goddesses such as Nemesis, the god of revenge; Cupid, the god of love; Pax, the god of peace; and the Furies, goddesses of vengeance. The gods and goddesses were worshiped in temples. Economic- The Roman Economy was generated on the labor of slaves, artisans, and merchants, Although they are credited to the preservation of the Romans sophisticated society, they were scorned by the hierarchy and the upper-class citizens in society for being the servants and not the master. The were frowned upon in Roman society. Their continuous labor was enforced by the Roman army.

After overthrowing the Etruscans, Rome felt threatened from its neighbors and sought protection from the Latin League. The Romans were able to build a small army and capture a city north of Tiber. Shortly after, however, the Gauls burned and plundered Rome. Half a century later the Roman were able to rebuild their civilization. By 340 BCE, Rome subdued their once allies the latins and proceeded to conquer the rest of southern Italy and the Etruscan civilizations. The strongest matching Rome in strength, numbers, and military skill was the Samnites. Rome managed to conquer them and moved on to the Greek cities in the south. By 264 BCE Rome had conquered all of southern and central Italy. Rome ruled the divided land under a confederation. Some conquered people were given the privilege of becoming citizens while some, such as the latins, were made automatic citizens. The people were free to do as the please but in exchange had to provide men for the Roman army. They were skilled diplomats as well as strategic military men. They were firm with rule and cruel to crush possible threats to the empire.

The Romans are known for their achievements in medicine and Engineering rather than math. They were the first to use concrete on large scale construction projects such as the dome and the barrel vault and the cross vault. They used their vaults to build aqueducts to carry fresh water to towns, and they used their engineering skills to build sewage systems to keep their towns clean and healthy.They also used their engineering skills to developed better methods to mine valuable metals such as silver, copper, and gold and became master ship builders and inventors of the "lateen sail."In medicine, Galen wrote during the Roman Empire, and he was the first to describe many symptoms and treatments. His medical textbook was the standard for over a thousand years. Julius Caesar also changed the calendar which is the one we use today, the Julian Calendar, with a few minor alterations. Plutonomy, a Roman astronomer also developed theories on a Geocentric solar system, despite its inaccuracy.

Science and Accomplishmnts

Citationso "Julius Caesar." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, 2015. Web. 30 Sept. 2015. .o Mark, Joshua J. "Punic Wars." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Routledge Publishing, 20 Dec. 2011. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. .o Donald L. Wasson. “Roman Religion,” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified November 13, 2013. http://www.ancient.eu /Roman_Religion/. (APA)o "Roman Science." - Ancient Rome. Portland State University, 2012. Web. 3 Oct. 2015. .o Duiker, W., & Spielvogel, J. (1994). The World of The Romans. In World history (5th ed., Vol. 1, p. 1008). Minneapolis, Minnesota: West Pub.o Roehm, A., & Buske, M. (1961). Rome, Ruler of the Ancient World. In The Record of mankind (2nd ed., p. 754). Boston, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath.


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