Rocks and Minerals 2

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by lambertbrooke
Last updated 7 years ago

Earth Sciences

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Rocks and Minerals 2

Igneous rocks: are those that solidify from a molten or partially molten state. These rocks are characterized as either extrusive or intrusive.Extrusive: Extrusive igneous rocks solidify from molten material that flows over the earth’s surface (lava). Extrusive igneous rocks typically have a fine-grained texture (individual minerals are not visible unless magnified) because the lava cools rapidly when exposed to the atmosphere, preventing crystal growth.Intrusive: form from molten material (magma) that flows and solidifies underground. These rocks usually have a coarse texture (individual minerals are visible without magnification), because the magma cools slowly underground, allowing crystal growth.

Metamorphic rocks: Metamorphic rocks are any rock type that has been altered by heat, pressure, and/or the chemical action of fluids and gases. Metamorphic rocks are classified by their structure and their dominant minerals. Metamorphic rock structure is either foliated (has a definite planar structure) or nonfoliated (massive, without structure).

The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock.

a. Students know how to differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks by referring to their properties and methods of formation (the rock cycle).

Rocks & Minerals

The Rock Cycle

Sedimentary rocks: Erosion and deposition play a key part in the formation of sedimentary rocks. Wind, water, ice, and chemicals break down existing rock into sediment that is then transported and deposited by wind, water, and glaciers.


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