Road to the Revolution

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Road to the Revolution

Road To The RevolutionBy: Colby Mamiya









The British called a meeting of colonial leaders because the British government was expecting a war to break out. This meeting took place in Albany, New York. The British wanted to make a alliance with the Iroquois Tribe and the colonies to defend themselves from the French. The Iroquois refused to make an alliance with the British since they thought the French will win the war. Benjamin Franklin published a picture of a snake chopped into pieces on his newspaper, "Philadelphia Gazette" with a warning "Join or Die". Benjamin Franklin drew up a plan called the Albany Plan of Union. It called for a council of representatives elected by the colonial assemblies. The council would have authority over the western settlements relations with the Native Americans and other urgent matters. It also could organize armies and collect taxes to pay its expenses. The Albany Congress approved Franklin's plans but the colonial assemblies rejected it. The colonies wanted to control their own taxes and armies.

The British were in disadvantages during the beginning of the war. General Braddock understood military tactics used in Europe where they were fighting in formation on open fields. Braddock knew nothing about fighting in North America where conditions were different. Braddock didn't respect colonial soldiers so they ignored to their warnings. He ignored the warnings that soldiers marching down a narrow road through a dense forest in red uniforms were perfect targets for the enemies hiding behind trees and bushes. When Franklin warned Braddock about ambushes, Braddock said it was no threat against his well-trained troops. As Braddock's forces got closer to Fort Duquesne, French troops and Native Americans ambushed them. About half of Braddock's army were killed or wounded, with the general himself among the dead. Britain's situation improved when William Pitt became prime minister. Pitt sought top generals who had genuine military talent like James Wolfe. Wolfe became one of Britain's top generals at the age of 30. With Pitt's command the British scored their first major victory in the war. They captured the fort at Louisbourg. After they captured Fort Duquesne and renamed it Fort Pitt, in William Pitt's honor and later became the city of Pittsburgh. After the victories the Iroquois changed their mind and sided with the British. After the alliance with the Iroquois Tribe they attacked Quebec, which was the key battle of the war. Quebec was the capital of New France, and was located on a cliff, overlooking St. Lawrence River. General Wolfe found a unguarded trail that allowed them to climb up the mountain and ambush the French. About 4,000 British soldiers defeated about 4,500 French soldiers on the plains in front of the city. More than 2,000 soldiers were killed or wounded in battle including General Wolfe and Montcalm. After the French lost Quebec, the French could no longer protect their North American territory. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris. France almost lost all of its North American possessions. France ceded French Canada to Britain along with all of the other territory east of the Mississippi with the exception of New Orleans. All French territory west of the Mississippi went to Spain.

The British and French controlled large areas of North America. British Settlers were pushing into the Ohio River Valley, which was claimed by the French to find better farmland. The French built forts to claim their land between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. The Virginia Colony also claimed the Ohio River Valley so Virginia's Governor decided to send soldiers to order the French to leave. The leader was George Washington from the Virginia militia. George Washington made the dangerous journey, to tell the governor that the French rejected his warning. After a year Washington traveled west again to build a fort where the Allegheny and the Monongahela rivers meet. Washington arrived too late. The French were building their own fort already, which was called Fort Duquesne. George Washington along with some troops and Indians attacked and defeated the French Party. Washington soon after retreated to an open meadow and built a small fort of his own. Washington called it Fort Necessity. A larger French army found the fort and forced Washington to surrender. They let Washington and his men go back to Virginia with a message that the French will never give up the Ohio River Valley.Johnny Tremain Quotes"An old wound he had recieved fighting forty years ago in the French and Indian Wars had stiffened up on him"(French and Indian War)(Pg 117)"Gransire's old gun was gone, and so was the powder-horn he had carried to Louisburg back in 1745"(French and Indian War)(Pg 296)



Britain controlled almost all of North America east of the Mississippi River. The large territory allowed endless settlement. Native Americans living west of the Appalachian Mountain were desperately trying to keep their land. After the French and Indian war ended, the white people and Native Americans were fighting for land.

Near the end of the French and Indian War, the leader of the Ottawa nation, Pontiac formed an alliance of Western Native Americans. Pontiac and his allies attacked British Forts and settlements throughout the area. Almost half a dozen western British forts were destroyed. At least 2,000 backcountry settlers were killed. The British settlers fought back and killled Native Americans who had not attacked them. The British finally defeated Pontiac after 3 months. Pontiac tried to fight back for another year but by September 1764 the war was over.

Britain wanted to avoid wars with the Native Americans. That's where the Proclamation of 1763 was issued. It banned colonial settlements west of a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. The settlers were told they had to move east of the line. The Proclamation of 1763 angered many people since they believed that they had the rights to reside wherever they wanted. The Proclamation was widely ignored and it was proved impossible for the British to enforce.

After the French and Indian War the British saw things differently. The expenses in Britain continued. The British government kept troops in North America to make sure France did not try to regain its lost territories and to protect settlers from Native American attacks. British leaders believed the colonists should pay part of the debt.

One year after the Sugar Act, Parliament passed on the Quartering Act. The purpose of the Quartering Act was to save money. To enforce the Proclamation of 1763, Britain kept 10,000 soldiers in the colonies. The act required colonists to house British troops and provide them with food and supplies. The colonists protested angrily and complained that Parliament was violating their rights. Johnny Tremain Quotes"Im quartered on Mr.Shaw, North Square"(Quartering Act)(Pg 158)

The British imposed new taxes on the colonies. Parliament passed the Sugar Act, which put a import tax on several products like molasses. The Sugar Act also called for harsh punishment of smugglers. Many colonial merchants protested.

Parliament passed on another act called the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act required for all colonists to buy special tax stamps for all kind of products and activities. The stamps had to be placed on newspapers, wills, liscenses, insurance policies, land titles, contracts, and other documents. Johnny Tremain Quotes"When the merchants agreed not to import any English goods until the Stamp Act was repealed, he was one of the first to sign then imported secretly""Let them break us down, stamp in our faces, take all we've got by taxes, and never protest"(Stamp Act)(Pg 82)

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