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by Pyropuncher
Last updated 7 years ago

Cell Biology

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The Fundamental Unit Of Life

Cell Membrane: The cell membrane is the outer most part of the cell which encloses all the other cell organelles. The cell membrane controls the influx of the nutrients and minerals in and out of the cell.Nucleus: Cell nucleus is supposed to be the brain or the control center of the cell and thus one of the most important parts. It contains the genetic material i.e. the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and the chromosomes. The DNA is made up of nucleotides which eventually help in protein formation by the process of transcription and translation

Mitochondria: Mitochondria are among the largest cell organelles also known as the engine house of the cells. Oxygen combines with glucose to form energy (ATP) required for metabolism and cellular activities in this organelle. It is an independent organelle having its own mitochondrial DNA, RNA and ribosomes owing to self replication and duplication.Ribosomes: As I mentioned previously, protein synthesis (transcription and translation) takes place in ribosomes. These organelles could be bound to the endoplasmic reticulum or free-floating in the cytoplasm.

Ribosomes are cytoplasmic granules composed of RNA and protein, at which protein synthesis takes place. They were first observed by Palade in the electron microscope as dense particles or granules. Upon isolation, they were shown to contain approximately equal amounts of RNA and protein Label. To function actively in protein synthesis, they must be bound into complete ribosomes.

Lysosomes: These are membrane bound sacs containing enzymes needed to break down unnecessary parts of the cell for reuse. It mainly helps phagocytosis and promotes intracellular digestion.Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): The diagram clearly suggests ER to be the second largest cell organelle after mitochondria since these form a series of interconnecting flattened tubular tunnels; rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The RER is mainly responsible for holding onto the proteins formed in the ribosomes, thus being rough in appearance.

Go Fun Facts aratus: The proteins formed and bounded by the ER need to be processed so as to perform normal functions. Golgi, membranous sacs associated chiefly with the endoplasmic reticulum, do that to release the protein chains.Vacuoles: Smaller gas and membrane vacuoles filled with fluids and water are present in animal cells. Their main function is storage.



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